Health Articles

2017-09-18 04:25:10 PM

HOOFPYN / HEADACHE

Baie mense ondervind probleme met hoofpyn. ‘n Paar interessante feite:

 

Reaktiewe Hoofpyn

‘n Mens kan hoofpyn kry as jy te gereeld te veel hoofpynmedikasie neem. Dit word ‘reaktiewe’ hoofpyn genoem en sal nie ophou voordat die persoon die medikasie heeltemal staak nie. ‘n Oordosis pynstillers kan ook jou lewer en/of niere beskadig.

 

Ancient Times

The ancient Greeks and Romans used peppermint tea to treat their headaches. However, it was not the only thing they used - they also drank chamomile, rosemary and lavender extracts. They also brushed raw potato, cabbage and onions on their heads as pain a reliever.

 

Migraines Oorerflik

Die meeste kinders wat migraines kry, het ten minste een naverwante familielid wat ook daaraan ly. As die kind een ouer het wat aan migraine ly, het hy of sy ‘n 50% kans om dit ook te kry, en as altwee ouers daaraan ly, styg die waarskynlikheid tot 75%.

 

Headache usually harmless

Although most headaches are uncomfortable and sometimes debilitating, it is usually not dangerous. Most headaches can be treated with over-the-counter medication, or by lying in a dark room for a while.

 

Oorsaak

Baie faktore soos om te vas, stres, besoedeling, geraas, rook, flitsende ligte en sekere tipes kos kan hoofpyn veroorsaak.

 

 

 

Hormones and Migraines

Migraine has to do with hormonal fluctuations. Many women get migraines few days prior to their menstrual cycle begins. Some women also get migraines during their menstrual cycle.

 

Die pil, hoofpyn en beroerte-risiko

Vroue wat rook en wat estrogeen-gebaseerde geboortebeperking gebruik, het ‘n hoër beroerte-risiko as vroue wat nie rook nie en nie ‘n estrogeen-gebaseerde pil gebruik nie. Wanneer vroue oorskakel na ‘n lae-estrogeen pil, kry hulle ook minder gereeld hoofpyn.

 

Lifestyle the solution

Lifestyle plays an important role in preventing headaches. If you do not smoke or drink too much, get enough sleep, maintain a healthy lifestyle and get daily exercise, it is unlikely that you will get headache regularly unless you have a medical problem.

 

Spanningshoofpyn

Kan enige iemand affekteer en is die mees algemene vorm van hoofpyn. Spanningshoofpyn is dikwels die resultaat van nek- en skouerspiere wat in spasma gaan en kan soms dae lank aanhou.

 

Cluster Headache (‘Troshoofpyn’) in men

More men than women suffer from cluster headache. These are intense headaches that often occur at the same time every day or every few days. Cluster headache is depressing, but usually does not last longer than 90 minutes. People who often smoke or drink often suffer from this type of headache.

 

 

Hangover headache

Is caused mainly by acetaldehyde, which replaces the glucose molecules in the brain. People with a hangover also suffer from dehydration and low blood sugar. Those with a hangover must drink large quantities of water or tea with sugar - not cold drink or coffee because it can cause further dehydration. 

Selfs filosowe kry hoofpyn

Die folosoof Friedrich Nietzsche het die grootste gedeelte van sy lewe aan uitmergelende migraines gely – dikwels tot twee of drie keer per week. Moderne dokters meen die kanse is goed dat hy ‘n breingewas gehad het wat hierdie migraines veroorsaak het, wat ook sy vroeë dood, op 56, verklaar.

 

A hole in the head

Long ago, headaches were often considered the work of evil spirits and rituals were carried out to drive them away. In the Neolithic Time, circular parts of the skull were removed to allow the spirits to escape. Funny enough, people seem to have survived these operations, as skulls have been found with holes that were in the healing process.

If this does not help for you, see this treatment: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vkSZFh70hGc 

Roomys-hoofpyne

Dit is geen wolhaarstorie nie – jy kan werklik hoofpyn kry as jy hierdie bevrore lekkerny eet. Dit word veroorsaak deur bloedvat-spasmas as gevolg van die intense koue van die roomys. Die spasmas onderbreek die bloedvloei en lei daartoe dat die bloedvate opswel.

 

Headache triggers

There are certain foods that can cause migraines to certain people. These include coffee, chocolate, yellow cheese and other dairy products, red meat, nuts, vegetable extracts, foods with a lot of monosodium glutamate and alcohol. These are the most common triggers, but individual migraine sufferers may respond to a variety of different foods or liquids.

 

Mees algemene pyn

Hoofpyn is die mees algemene oorsaak van pyn wat daartoe lei dat pasiënte hul huisdokter besoek. Die meeste mense pas egter selfbehandeling toe met oor-die-toonbank middels en baie migraine-lyers bly ongediagnoseer. Wanneer mense die aanbevole dosis gereeld oorskry, kan analgesiese middels, om die waarheid te sê, die oorsaak van hoofpyn wees.

 

Headache in Children

Even children get headaches. Some even under the age of ten. Before puberty, headaches are more common with boys. Adult women get four times more headaches than men and it is attributed to hormonal fluctuation. The frequency and severity of headaches reduce in men and women as they grow older.

 

 

 

 


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2017-07-11 08:08:52 AM

 Kodeïen bekruip jou dalk ongesiens

 

Uittreksel vanaf Netwerk24.com

Deur Carien Grobler 28 Junie 2017

“My kollegas verwys grappenderwys na my as die lopende apteek. Ek het altyd pynpille, oogdruppels en pleisters byderhand en as jy die dag gelukkig is, ook iets vir slegte spysvertering.”

Die mooi vrou* met die donker hare vee ’n lastige lok weg voordat sy verder vertel.

“Die pynpille kom van my hoërskooldae af, toe ek met chroniese hoofpyn gesukkel het. Ek kan nie onthou dat hoofpyn my lewe op universiteit ontwrig het nie, maar toe ek begin werk, kon ’n hoofpyn voor spertyd nogal ’n spanner in die works wees.”

 

Sy vertel dat sy nog al die jare met pynpille in haar handsak rondloop.

“Toe ek boonop ’n hoër skedule pynmedikasie begin neem weens chroniese rugspasma, was die einde voorspelbaar. Ek het een aand doodluiters op my bed gaan sit toe ek duiselig word en my lippe begin prik. Ek was ’n oomblik lank verbaas en het na my badkamerkassie toe gestap om seker te maak ek het my antidepressant gedrink en het toe weer rustig op die bed gaan sit.”

Die enigste pille wat sy in daardie stadium geneem het, was die antidepressant en pynpille.

“Ek het die voubiljet by die pille uitgehaal, deurgelees en toe ’n huisdokter-vriendin gekontak. Sy het onmiddellik vermoed ek is kodeïenafhanklik en het my aangeraai om die pille onmiddellik te los of geleidelik af te skaal. Ek het verkies om cold turkey te gaan.”

Ek maak dit aan enige dokter duidelik dat ek kodeïenafhanklik is, sodat ek nie per abuis weer daaraan blootgestel word nie.

Met betroubare inligting oor die onttrekkingsimptome het sy haarself met ’n ysere wil en baie bottels water bewapen.

“My vriendin het my gewaarsku teen ‘vals’ onttrekkingsimptome teen dag vier of vyf. Die duiseligheid en mondprikkels was binne ’n week weg en as enige van die simptome weer sy kop uitgesteek het, het ek water gedrink. Die simptome van onttrekking sluit angstigheid, irritasie, slapeloosheid, sweet, ’n versnelde hartklop, verlies aan aptyt, naarheid en braking, maagkrampe, diarree en hoendervleis in.

“Ná daardie week is ek baie versigtig om enige medikasie oor die toonbank te koop. Die rede? Kodeïen kom in ’n verskeidenheid van medikasie voor. Dus vertrou ek my apteker en fynkam ek die voubiljet by enige medikasie wat ek neem. Ek maak dit ook aan enige dokter duidelik dat ek kodeïenafhanklik is, sodat ek nie per abuis weer daaraan blootgestel word nie.

 

Afhanklikheid kan in jou apteek begin

Volgens die Suid-Afrikaanse Independent Community Pharmacy Association (ICPA) roep die meeste mense dadelik beelde van onwettige transaksies op straathoeke op wanneer hulle aan dwelmverslawing dink.

Die wettige roete wat verskeie mense in staat stel om verslawende middels te bekom, is die pad na jou apteek wat medikasie met kodeïen aanhou.

 

 

Wat is kodeïen?

Kodeïen is ’n bestanddeel van medikasie bo skedule twee en kom algemeen voor in middels wat gebruik word vir die behandeling van verkoue en griep, hoes en pyn. ’n Voorskrif is nie nodig om ’n middel met kodeïen te bekom nie.

Kodeïen val onder die kategorie van narkotiese medikasie en is ’n soort opiaat – afgelei van die opiumplant en verwant aan die dwelmmiddel heroïen. Aangesien dit in die klas van die opiate val, het dit ’n soortgelyke invloed op die liggaam as morfien en gee dit aan gebruikers ’n gevoel van kalmte en welstand.

Namate die liggaam aan kodeïen gewoond raak, is hoër dosisse nodig om dieselfde uitwerking te hê. Dit is waar verslawing ’n gevaar word.

Hoe raak ’n mens verslaaf?

Gereelde of langtermyngebruik van medikasie wat kodeïen bevat kan tot verslawing lei. Aangesien verslawing geleidelik plaasvind, is dit dikwels moeilik om die risiko van verslawing te bepaal.

 

Tekens en simptome van kodeïenafhanklikheid

Volgens die ICPA kan mense wat aan kodeïen verslaaf is verskeie tekens en simptome ervaar wat op ’n probleem dui:

* Onttrekking van sosiale aktiwiteite en ’n verlies aan belangstelling in stokperdjies;

* Aanhoudende versoeke vir geld om die verslawing te ondersteun;

* Buierigheid en irritasie;

* Depressie en angstigheid;

* Hallusinasie;

* Moegheid;

* Vel wat jeuk;

* Blouerige skynsel op die lippe en vingernaels;

* Verlies aan eetlus;

* Hardlywigheid;

* Naarheid en duiseligheid; en

* Onbeheerbare spiertrekkings. 

 

Onttrekkingsimptome kan binne ’n week verdwyn, maar dit kan ook maande lank aanwesig wees nadat kodeïengebruik gestaak is. ’n Behoefte aan die middel kan ook heelwat langer as die onttrekkingsimptome aanwesig wees.

 

*Verteller se identiteit is beskerm

*Bron: www.icpa.co.za

 


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Sakeman loop rieme styf met vals Viagra

Deur Maygene de Wee (Volksblad 30 November 2016)

 

"Mense moet nie pille of enige medisyne oor die internet koop nie"

Dit was die woorde van Henk Jones van Brooke International, 'n private speuragentskap, nadat hulle deur 'n sakeman genader is om sy "verskaffer" op te spoor.

Die sakeman, 'n ryk Oostenryker, het 'n paar jaar gelede in Kaapstad kom aftree. Hy woon in een van die voorstede teen Tafelberg se hange.

Hy het 'n advertensie op die internet raakgelees waar Cialis-pille spotgoedkoop verkoop word.  Die Oostenrykse sakeman wou die pille glo aankoop om sy bloedsomloop te reguleer.

Die man wat die pille geadverteer het, is ene Sammy.  Die Oostenryker en Sammy het glo kontak gemaak en e-posadresse uitgeruil.  In een e-pos aan die Oostenryker het Sammy onder meer geskryf dat hy oorspronklike Viagra te koop het.  Teen R50 elk.  Hy het ook goeie dagga-olie te koop.

Volgens Jones het sy kliënt 'n bestelling geplaas en die geld vir die pille betaal.  Hy het glo 'n opsporingsnommer gekry om sy pille by 'n plaaslike PostNet af te haal.

 

Jones wou nie sê hoeveel sy kliënt vir die pille betaal het nie.  "Kom ons sê net dat dit 'n aardige bedraggie is".

 

En volgens Jones is dit hier waar die probleme begin het.  "My kliënt het besef dat die bestanddele van die pille wat hy gekoop het nie die regte bestanddele is nie.  Die pille het ook nie hul werk reg gedoen nie en dit het 'n vervaldatum van etlike maande gelede gehad."

Volgens hom het sy kliënt sy verskaffer gekontak en die pille teruggestuur na 'n PostNet adres wat verskaf is.  "Die pille wat hy teruggekry het, se vervaldatum is net verander," het Jones gesê.

En net daarna het Sammy en sy verskaffer en die Oostenrykse sakeman se geld soos mis voor die son verdwyn.

Jones het gesê hulle het nou al alles in hul vermoë gedoen om Sammy en sy verskaffer op te spoor.  "Maar dis soos om 'n naald in 'n hooimied te soek".

 

Sy waarskuwing aan mense is:  "As jy bloedsomloop-probleme het, gaan sien asseblief jou mediese dokter vir die regte medisyne."


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Inenting kan lei tot minder Antibiotika

Deur Elsabe Brits (Volksblad 18 November 2016)

 

Kenners se boodskap tydens Internasionale Antibiotika-bewusmakingsweek is dat inenting keer dat mense en diere siek word en antibiotika nodig het.  'n Doeltreffende manier om die stryd teen gevaarlike antimikrobiese weerstandigheid te pak is om mense en diere in te ent. 

Dit is die boodskap van die Weredgesondheidsorganisasie (WGO) en gesondheidskenners vandeesweek ten tyde van Internasional Antibiotika-bewusmakingsweek.

Inenting keer in die eerste plek dat mense en diere siek word en antibiotika nodig het.  Indien elke kind in die wêreld teen Stretococcus pneumoniae ingeënt word, sal 11 miljoen dae van antibiotika gebruik jaarliks 'gespaar' word, se die WGO.  Dit sal 'n vermindering van van 47% in die gebruik van antibiotika meebring by kinders jonger as vyf wat vir van die infeksies behandel moet word.

Verskeie stamme van die bakterië Streptococcus pneumoniae wat infeksies veroorsaak, het reeds wêreldwyd weerstandig geraak teen een of meer antibiotika.  Babas en mense ouer as 65 kan daarteen ingeênt word, asook mense met bepaalde chroniese siektes.  Volgens die Amerikaanse sentrums vir siektebeheer en -voorkoming (CDC) is pneumokokkale entstof noodsaaklik vir babas omdat dit beskerming bied teen bakterieë wat verantwoordelik is vir longontsteking en infeksies van die sinus, ore, brein, rugmurg en bloedstroom.

Entstowwe teen virusse soos griep het ook 'n rol om te speel, al help antibiotika nie teen virusse nie.  Die entstof help dat mense siek word en nie antibiotika verkeerdelik wil gebruik nie.  The Lancet het verlede jaar 'n reeks artikels gepubliseer waarin genoem word dat mense se gebruik van antibiotika tussen 2000 en 2010 met 36% toegeneem het.  Die entstof help dat mense siek word en nie antibiotika verkeerdelik wil gebruik nie.

Die topverbruikers is Rusland, Indië, China en Suid-Afrika, wat 'n driekwart van die wêreld se antibiotika gebruik, al verteenwoordig hulle net 40% van die bevolking.  In Indië word die verkope van die middels oor die toonbank swak gereguleer.  Antibiotika word ook vir die behandeling van tuberkulose gebruik.

Die navorsing meld dat Suid-Afrika 'n goeie antibiotika-beheerplan het.  Daar is ook standaardriglyne vir gebruik.  Intussen is daar 'n kommerwekkende toename in tuberkulose wat al hoe minder met beskikbare antibiotika behandel kan word.  Dit word aanbeveel dat ouer mense die pneumokokkale entstof (PPSV23) op 65 kry, selfs al het hulle dit vroeër gehad omdat dit die enigste manier is om die dodelike infeksies te voorkom.  Dit beskerm teen 23 stamme van die bakterieë en beskerming ontwikkel binne drie weke.  Dit dra ook by om die tropweerstand op te bou sodat meer mense beskerm word.

Ek neem antibiotika korrek, kan dit met my gebeur?

Ja, dit kan. Dit is nie die mens wat weerstandig word teen die antibiotika nie, maar die bakterieë.  Gebruik altyd die hele dosis presies soos voorgeskryf.

Waarvoor is antibiotika nie nodig nie?

Volgens die CDC word dit nie aanbeveel vir brongitis, griep, verkoue, borsverkoue, seer keel (met streptokokkus is dit wel nodig), sinus en vloeistof in die middeloor nie.  Dit is wel nodig vir blaasontsteking en kinkhoes (maar vir laasgenoemde behoort kinders ingeënt te word).


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2016-11-21 09:53:27 AM

Regering hou jou medikasie duur

Deur Johan Eybers (Volksblad 30 Oktober 2016)

Suid-Afrikaners betaal tot 94% meer vir lewensnoodsaaklike medisyne as in ander lande omdat talle patente op omstrede maniere toegestaan en verleng word.  Navorsing wat deur die organisasie Fix Our Patent Laws gedoen is om druk op die regering te plaas om sy patentwetgewing te hervorm en medisynepryse te verlaag, toon onder meer dat middels wat hier amper onbekostigbaar is, lank reeds toeganklik is in ander lande.

Patentwetgewing gee patenthouers soos farmaseutiese maaskappye om nuwe produkte te ontwikkel,  maar drukgroepe sê die Wet op Patente word uitgebuit ten koste van armes.  Fix Our Patent Laws sê in sy navorsingsverslag die bors- en maagkankermedisyne Herceptin (generies bekend as trastuzumab) kos hier R485 800 per maand terwyl 'n generiese middel in Indië sowat 70% goedkoper is.  Die patenthouer van die middel het in 2013-14 al meer as R100 miljoen uit plaaslike verkope verdien en hul plaaslike monopolie verval eers in 2027, sê die organisasie.  Velcade (bortezomib), 'n chroniese middel vir nierbehandeling, is ook plaaslik 75% duurder as in Italië.  Die patenthouer, Janssen, het beskerming tot in 2015 in Suid-Afrika gehad, maar daar is 'n hangende aansoek om die patent tot 2035 te verleng.

Selfs waar patente nog geldig is, gee internasionale ooreenkomste oor intellektuele eiendomsreg lande 'n agterdeur om noodsaaklike medisyne goedkoop te laat vervaardig deur verpligte lisensies uit te reik.  'n Generiese vervaardiger wat ingevolge 'n verpligte lisensie medisyne vervaardig, betaal dan net lisensiegelde aan die patenthouer.  Hoewel lande soos Indië verpligte lisensies uitreik, het Suid-Afrika sedert die ontstaan van die wet in 1978 nog nooit 'n verpligte lisensie uitgereik nie.

"Ons navorsing wys dat verouderde patentwetgewing, die regering se onwilligheid om patente te reguleer en farmaseutiese maatskappye wat dit misbruik tot hul eie voordeel, die oorsaak is van onbeskostigbare medisyne," sê Lotti Rutter, woordvoerder van die Treatment Action Campaign en lid van Fix Our Patent Laws.  Die gevolge is dat mediese fondse nie bereid is om vir hierdie lewensnoodsaaklike medisyne te betaal nie en Jan Alleman dit ook nie kan bekostig nie, sê sy.

Prof. Yousuf Vawda, 'n kenner van mediese patentreg aan die Universiteit van KwaZulu-Natal, sê die grootste frustrasie is dat hoewel internasionale handelsooreenkomste vereis dat patentbeskerming vir hoogstens 20 jaar moet geld, kry farmaseutiese maatskappye dit reg om hul patente plaaslik tot 30 of self 40 jaar te verleng.  Suid-Afrika ken 'n hoër persentasie farmaseutiese patente toe as Westerse Lande, selfs Amerika en Europese state.

Patente hier gee 'n 20 jaar monopolie op nuwe deurbraakmedisyne, asook 'n opeenvolgende 20 jaar monopolie op byna elke soort klein verandering aan die medisyne, verduidelik hy.  Volgens hom gebeur dit omdat Suid-Afrika nie oor 'n patent-inpseksiestelsel beskik nie en verskeie patente op dieselfde middel gekry word.

Maatskappye verleng sodoende hul monopolie, stuit generiese medisyne en veroorsaak buitensporige pryse vir medisyne, sê hy.  Volgens Vawda behoort die kliniese studies wat deur oorspronklike patenthouers by die Medisynebeheerraad ingedien word, ook aan ander vervaardigers beskikbaar gestel te word wat later generiese weergawes daarvan wil vervaardig om onnodige koste te besnoei.

Op die oomblik moet die Medisynebeheerraad die inligting as streng vertroulik hanteer.  Vawda en Rutter is wel optimisties oor die uitreiking van die Department van Handel en Nywerheid se konsepbeleid oor patentwetgewing in Julie.  Dit is verblydend dat die konsepbeleid uitendelik uitgebrei is.  Ons plaas al seder 2011 druk op die regering om dit te doen.  Ons glo die verandering in die regering se beleid sal groter mededinging in die farmaseutiese sektor teweeg bring en kanker-, TB- en antiretrovirale medisyne meer bekostigbaar maak, sê Vawda.


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2016-11-21 08:28:47 AM

E-Sigaret kan springmielie-longe veroorsaak.

Volksblad  26/05/2016

 

Navorsing wys dat die geurmiddels in sommige e-sigarette met longsiektes verbind kan word.

 

E-Sigarette word dikwels as die meer gesonde alternatief van tabak-sigarette gesien.  'n Nuwe studie deur die Harvardskool van openbare gesondheid in Amerika dui daarop dat hierdie sigarette ander gesondheidsrisiko's as gewone sigarette mag inhou.  Die studie is in die joernaal Environmental Health Perspective gepubliseer.

 

Luidens die studie kom diasetiel, 'n geurmiddel wat aan gevalle van ernstige longsiektes verbind word, in 75% van gegeurde e-sigarette voor.

 

Onder hierdie siektes is die ongeneeslike "popcorn lung".

 

Navorsers sê hierdie siekte het sy naam gekry nadat dit die eerste keer voorgekom het in werkers wat die kunsmatige bottergeur in springmielie-fabrieke ingeasem het.

 

"Popcorn lung" veroorsaak skade aan die klein lugsakkies in die longe en lei tot ernstige hoesbuie en 'n tekort aan asem.

 

Meer as 7000 soorte gegeurde e-sigarette en e-sap (vloeistof wat nikotien bevat en in hervulbare e-sigarette gebruik word) is op die oomblik beskikbaar.

 

Prof Joseph Allen en sy kollegas het 51 van hierdie sigarette en vloeistowwe getoets vir die aanwesigheid van diasetiel, asetoien en 2,3-pentaandioon, drie verwante geurmiddels wat albei met longsiekte verbind word.  Minstens een van die drie geurmiddels is in 47 van die getoetsde geure aangetref.

 

"Die gevaar wanneer mense gegeurde chemikalieë inasem, is reeds 'n dekade gelede gesien toe mense met 'popcorn lung' gediagnoseer is.  Nietemin kom diasetiel in verskeie ander geurmiddels, soos alkoholgeure en e-sigarette met lekkergoed-geure voor," se Allen.


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2015-07-16 02:13:29 PM

By far the most effective way to prevent flu is to have the annual flu vaccine.

Many cold and flu viruses are acquired from people who don’t yet show any symptoms, and it’s always difficult to contain viruses that travel through the air. You can’t really help being exposed to these viruses. However, there are some general measures you can take to give yourself the best chance of avoiding infection.

At home or work

• Wash your hands frequently and don’t touch your nose, eyes or mouth unnecessarily.

• "Contain" sneezes and coughs with disposable tissues (and make sure to dispose of them right away!) and wash your hands afterwards.

• Try not to touch objects around you when in public places, such as the rail of the escalator or your coughing colleague's pen or computer mouse.

• To minimise exposure, avoid close or prolonged contact with people with a cold or flu. With an incubation period of one to four days and a contagious period of seven days or longer, it’s best to avoid any person with flu for at least a week.

• There may be a role for vitamin A supplementation to prevent flu in children who are malnourished.

• Quit smoking. Those who smoke are more vulnerable to complications of respiratory infections. • Clean surfaces – especially kitchen and bathroom counter tops – with disinfectant soap.

Your child • Discourage your child from sharing food, utensils, handkerchiefs, napkins and towels with classmates.

• Toys may be contaminated with respiratory secretions. Look for childcare centres where plastic toys are washed daily and stuffed toys washed weekly.

• Teach your children to wash their hands before and after eating, after using the bathroom, after touching their faces, after spending time in public spaces, and after touching animals.

• Rather keep your toddler at home if a child at the crèche has the flu and yours is healthy. Similarly, keep a child at home who shows symptoms of flu to avoid infecting other children.

The flu shot

The best way to reduce your chances of contracting flu is by getting a flu vaccination. Although flu is generally not dangerous, it can cause serious complications and even death, especially in the elderly and the very young. That’s why you should rather avoid contracting this highly contagious disease, especially if you’re vulnerable.

New strains

Because of slight changes (called mutations) in the genetic material of the influenza A and B viruses, new virus strains emerge each year. As a result vaccines have to be updated each season.

Three strains of influenza are generally included in the annual vaccine, based on the prediction of the strains likely to circulate in the community during a given season.

These small, almost yearly, genetic changes should not be confused with a major genetic “shift”. Such a shift could lead to the creation of a completely new influenza virus to which humans have not been exposed before and to which we have little or no resistance, such as the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu).

(Reviewed by Dr Jane Yeats, Department of Virology, University of Cape Town 2006)

(Updated and reviewed by Dr Jean Maritz and Dr Leana Maree, medical virologists, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch 2010)


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2015-07-16 12:00:00 AM

A child with a high temperature may be at risk for a febrile convulsion (fever fit). The fever should be brought down with paracetamol syrup and sponging the child with tepid water may be helpful.

NOTE: Aspirin is never used in children with a fever because if the fever is caused by a virus there is a risk that the child will develop Reye's syndrome (a rare but fatal condition which affects the brain and liver).

Although there are many cold and flu remedies available over the counter in chemists and supermarkets, these are generally not advisable in young children and should be discussed with a pharmacist or doctor.

Reye syndrome a Summary:

•Reye syndrome is a rare cause of encephalopathy (brain disease) and death in children

•There is a correlation between the incidence of Reye syndrome and children suffering from a viral illness, especially influenza or chicken pox, who are given aspirin to reduce their fever.

•For this reason, aspirin is not recommended for routine use in children. •Most cases occur between the ages of 4 and 12 years

•About the sixth day of the viral illness, the child suddenly develops intractable vomiting rapidly associated with an altered state of consciousness, ranging from lethargy to coma and death.

•There is concomitant liver involvement and dysfunction that ranges from mild to severe.

•The cause is unknown.

•There is no specific treatment.

•The outcome depends on how soon supportive management is started as well as the severity of the disease.

•Most cases are mild and the child recovers completely.

What is Reye syndrome?

Reye syndrome is a disease complex consisting of an acute encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the liver with associated hypoglycaemia. Dr R. Reye, an Australian pathologist, first described the syndrome in 1963.

What causes Reye syndrome?

The cause is unknown, but a correlation between the incidence of Reye syndrome and children suffering from a viral upper respiratory tract infection, especially influenza (or chicken pox) who were given aspirin to reduce their fever has been reported.

The syndrome reached a peak in the 1970’s but is now rarely diagnosed. The reason for this is unknown.

In recent years, better laboratory techniques and facilities have resulted in the identification and diagnosis of a number of Reye-like syndromes. These are usually caused by rare inherited metabolic defects and occur in young children.

Who gets Reye syndrome and who is at risk?

Children between the ages of 4 and 12 years who are suffering from a viral illness, especially influenza or chicken pox, are at greatest risk.

The situation may be compounded by the use of aspirin in these children.

What are the symptoms and signs of Reye syndrome?

The typical presentation is a previously well child who appears to be recovering from an upper respiratory tract infection and then suddenly on about the 4th to 6th day of the illness develops severe and protracted vomiting along with an altered level of consciousness.

In most cases the child will just be lethargic and irritable, but in some there may be a rapid deterioration with seizures and finally coma. This is due to inflammation and swelling of the brain (cerebral oedema) which is the main cause of death.

The liver becomes enlarged and there will be variable manifestations of liver dysfunction from (most cases) mild to (a few cases) complete liver failure. Hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose) is a severe complication as is a tendency to bleed easily.

How is Reye syndrome diagnosed?

Reye syndrome is a medical emergency and should be suspected in any child showing acute onset of severe vomiting and altered mental status.

Diagnosis is based on the clinical picture and laboratory tests showing abnormal liver function, and confirmed by liver biopsy showing fatty degeneration.

How is Reye syndrome treated?

There is no specific treatment.

Successful supportive management depends on making the correct diagnosis and excluding the Reye-like syndromes; the severity of the illness; reducing the brain swelling and countering the effects of the liver failure.

All children are admitted and given intravenous glucose and fluids. Further management will depend on the severity of the disease. This could be from simple observation and monitoring to giving drugs to reduce the brain swelling; the prevention of seizures or even assisted ventilation. Blood and blood products may be necessary to treat a bleeding tendency.

What is the outcome of Reye syndrome?

The outcome depends on how quickly the diagnosis is made and management started and the severity and duration of the encephalopathy. Mild cases will recover quickly with no neurological deficit, whereas the more severe cases take longer to recover and may have significant neurological deficit.

Death is rare and is due to brain death from the cerebral oedema.

When to see your doctor

A child with a viral upper respiratory tract infection particularly influenza (or chicken pox) who suddenly develops severe vomiting associated with changes in behaviour or decreasing consciousness, and who has been given aspirin, should be seen by a doctor.

Reviewed by Dr John D. Burgess, FCPaed (CMSA), Senior Specialist, Red Cross Children's Hospital.


Comments(0)
2015-05-28 10:41:47 AM

Volksblad 26/05/2015

Die meeste ouers hou noukeurig by hul kinders se inentingskedule, maar hoeveel volwassenes laat hulle teen voorkombare infeksies inent? Rochélle Human doen verslag oor die inentings wat volwassenes behoort te kry. Die doel van inentings is om vatbare mense te beskerm: Pasgebore babas, ouer mense en diegene met siektetoestande wat hul immuunstelsel onderdruk. ’n Mens se immuunstelsel verswak van nature met ouderdom en so ook die doeltreffendheid van inentings wat in die kinderjare gedoen is.

Kinkhoes kom tans weer by volwassenes voor omdat die inentings wat hulle as kinders gekry het nie meer so doeltreffend is nie, sê dr. Allison Glass, ’n kliniese viroloog van Lancet Laboratories.

Daar word ook gedurig nuwe inentings ontwikkel.

’n Inenting teen hepatitis B, die seksueel oordraagbare virus wat lewerskade kan veroorsaak, het eers in die middel 1990’s deel van die pediatriese inentingsprogram geword. Enigiemand ouer as 20 het dit dus waarskynlik nie gekry nie.

Sommige inentings is spesifiek op volwassenes gemik om siektes te voorkom waarvan volwassenes ’n groter risiko het, soos gordelroos en die menslike papilloomvirus (MPV).

Die doel van inentings is om individue wat vatbaar vir infeksies is te beskerm, sê Glass.

“Jonger volwassenes se immuunstelsels is nog gesond. As hulle ingeënt word, het hulle gewoonlik ’n goeie immuunreaksie op die entstof. Só voorkom hulle dat hulle die betrokke infeksie kry en mense aansteek wat dalk meer kwesbaar is.”

In die VSA is daar jaarliks sowat 60 000 sterftes weens siektes wat deur inentings voorkom kan word. Die meeste daarvan is volwassenes. Daar is nie soortgelyke statistiek vir Suid-Afrika beskikbaar nie.

Hier is van die belangrikste inentings vir volwassenes:

Tetanus Tetanus (of klem-in-die-kaak) kom danksy die inenting daarteen nie meer baie voor nie. ’n Mens se immuniteit daarteen neem egter af wanneer jy volwassenheid bereik, sê Glass.

Tetanus veroorsaak erge spierspasmas en kan intensiewe sorg en ventilasie noodsaak. Dit veroorsaak dood in sowat een uit elke tien gevalle.

“Ek het jare laas ’n geval gesien,” sê sy.

“Die laaste geval was by die Pretoria- akademiese hospitaal (nou die Steve Biko- akademiese hospitaal). ’n Plank het teen ’n vrou wat in die tuin gewerk het, geval en haar been lig gesny. Bakterieë van die grond het in die sny gekom en sy het tetanus gekry.”

Medici beveel ’n versterker-inenting elke tien jaar aan.

Influensa (Griep)

Voorkom dié winter erge griep deur betyds ingeënt te word. Foto: iStock

Griep (veroorsaak deur die influensavirus) kan ernstige siekte in vatbare individue veroorsaak en selfs noodlottig wees.

In Amerika word sowat 226 000 mense jaarliks weens influensa in die hospitaal opgeneem. Tot 49 000 mense (meestal volwassenes) sterf jaarliks, afhangend van hoe dodelik daardie seisoen se griepsoorte is.

Kenners beveel aan dat alle mense ouer as ses maande jaarliks teen griep ingeënt word.

Volgens die gesondheidsorggroep Netcare is dit dié winter belangriker as ooit dat ’n mens teen die griepvirus ingeënt word.

 


Comments(0)
2015-03-18 12:45:25 PM

Lead Developer of HPV Vaccines Comes Clean, Warns Parents & Young Girls It’s All A Giant Deadly Scam

Dr. Diane Harper was a leading expert responsible for the Phase II and Phase III safety and effectiveness studies which secured the approval of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines, Gardasil™ and Cervarix™.  Dr. Harper also authored many of the published, scholarly papers about the vaccines.  She is now the latest in a long string of experts who are pressing the red alert button on the devastating consequences and irrelevancy of these vaccines.  Dr. Harper made her surprising confession at the 4th International Converence on Vaccination which took place in Reston, Virginia.  Her speech, which was originally intended to promote the benefits of the vaccines, took a 180-degree turn when she chose instead to clean her conscience about the deadly vaccines so she “could sleep at night”.  The following is an excerpt from a story by Sarah Cain:

“Dr. Harper explained in her presentation that the cervical cancer risk in the U.S. is already extremely low, and that vaccinations are unlikely to have any effect upon the rate of cervical cancer in the United States.  In fact, 70% of all HPV infections resolve themselves without treatment in a year, and the number rises to well over 90% in two years.  Harper also mentioned the safety angle.  All trials of the vaccines were done on children aged 15 and above, despite them currently being marketed for 9-year-olds.  So far, 15,037 girls have reported adverse side effects from Gardasil™ alone to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), and this number only reflects parents who underwent the hurdles required for reporting adverse reactions.  At the time of writing, 44 girls are officially known to have died from these vaccines.  The reported side effects include Guillian Barré Syndrome (paralysis lasting for years, or permanently — sometimes eventually causing suffocation), lupus, seizures, blood clots, and brain inflammation.  Parents are usually not made aware of these risks.  Dr. Harper, the vaccine developer, claimed that she was speaking out, so that she might finally be able to sleep at night.  ’About eight in every ten women who have been sexually active will have HPV at some stage of their life,’ Harper says.  ’Normally there are no symptoms, and in 98 per cent of cases it clears itself.  But in those cases where it doesn’t, and isn’t treated, it can lead to pre-cancerous cells which may develop into cervical cancer.’” 

Although these two vaccines are marketed as protection against cervical cancer, this claim is purely hypothetical.  Studies have proven “there is no demonstrated relationship between the condition being vaccinated for and the rare cancers that the vaccine might prevent, but it is marketed to do that nonetheless.  In fact, there is no actual evidence that the vaccine can prevent any cancer.  From the manufacturers own admissions, the vaccine only works on 4 strains out of 40 for a specific venereal disease that dies on its own in a relatively short period, so the chance of it actually helping an individual is about about the same as the chance of her being struck by a meteorite.”

UPDATE #1: Since coming forward with the truth about the devastating consequences of the HPV vaccine, Dr. Harper has been victim of a relentless campaign attempting to discredit the validity of her claims.  Harper was even misquoted by British tabloid The Sunday Express which printed a false story loaded with fabricated quotations attributed to Harper.  In an interview with The Guardian, Harper makes it very clear about what exactly she said in order to protect herself from a potential lawsuit.  In an interview with CBS NEWS, Harper clarifies her position, and once again makes it crystal clear just how devastating this vaccine can be: “If we vaccinate 11 year olds and the protection doesn’t last … we’ve put them at harm from side effects, small but real, for no benefit,” says Dr. Harper. “The benefit to public health is nothing, there is no reduction in cervical cancers, they are just postponed, unless the protection lasts for at least 15 years, and over 70% of all sexually active females of all ages are vaccinated.”  She also says that enough serious side effects have been reported after Gardasil use that the vaccine could prove riskier than the cervical cancer it purports to prevent.  Cervical cancer is usually entirely curable when detected early through normal Pap screenings.

 

“The risks of serious adverse events including death reported after Gardasil use in (the JAMA article by CDC’s Dr. Barbara Slade) were 3.4/100,000 doses distributed,” Harper tells CBS NEWS.  ”The rate of serious adverse events on par with the death rate of cervical cancer.  Gardasil has been associated with at least as many serious adverse events as there are deaths from cervical cancer developing each year.  Indeed, the risks of vaccination are underreported in Slade’s article, as they are based on a denominator of doses distributed from Merck’s warehouse.  Up to a third of those doses may be in refrigerators waiting to be dispensed as the autumn onslaught of vaccine messages is sent home to parents the first day of school.  Should the denominator in Dr. Slade’s work be adjusted to account for this, and then divided by three for the number of women who would receive all three doses, the incidence rate of serious adverse events increases up to five fold. How does a parent value that information,” said Harper.

 

“Parents and women must know that deaths occurred,” Harper tells CBS NEWS.  “Not all deaths that have been reported were represented in Dr. Slade’s work, one-third of the death reports were unavailable to the CDC, leaving the parents of the deceased teenagers in despair that the CDC is ignoring the very rare but real occurrences that need not have happened if parents were given information stating that there are real, but small risks of death surrounding the administration of Gardasil.”  She also worries that Merck’s aggressive marketing of the vaccine may have given women a false sense of security. “The future expectations women hold because they have received free doses of Gardasil purchased by philanthropic foundations, by public health agencies or covered by insurance is the true threat to cervical cancer in the future.  Should women stop Pap screening after vaccination, the cervical cancer rate will actually increase per year. Should women believe this is preventive for all cancers — something never stated, but often inferred by many in the population — a reduction in all health care will compound our current health crisis.  Should Gardasil not be effective for more than 15 years, the most costly public health experiment in cancer control will have failed miserably.”  Harper notes that her concern for the vaccine’s deadly side effects applies only to women in the Western world.  ”Of course, in developing countries where there is no safety Pap screening for women repeatedly over their lifetimes, the risks of serious adverse events may be acceptable as the incidence rate of cervical cancer is five to 12 times higher than in the US, dwarfing the risk of death reported after Gardasil.”

UPDATE #2: The National Vaccine Information Center HAS CONFIRMED two virologists, Stephen Krahling and Joan Wlochowski have filed a lawsuit against their former employer and vaccine manufacturer Merck.  NVIC writes: “The lawsuit alleges that Merck defrauded the U.S. for over 10 years by overstating the MMR vaccine’s effectivenes.  The virologists claim in their lawsuit that they ‘Witnessed firsthand the improper testing and data falseification in which Merck engaged to artificially inflate the vaccine’s efficacy findings.”  NVIC president and co-founder, Barbara Loe Fisher, warns of the disturbingly cozy relationship and overwhelming conflict of interest between federal agencies charged with vaccine safety oversight (such as the Centers for Disease Control) and vaccine manufacturers.  Merck’s global vaccine sales total more than $20 BILLION A YEAR.

 

As the world’s pharmaceutical giants continue to be driven less by moral accountability and more by profit and shareholder-driven bottom lines, we are going to see more and more products such as this vaccine which are marketed as “essential to one’s survival.”  While some vaccines are indeed essential, such as vaccines for polio and measles, the HPV vaccine is a new beast entirely.  To learn more about how pharmaceutical giants are putting profits ahead of ethics you need to watch FRONTLINE’s terrifying new documentary “Hunting The Nightmare Bacteria.”


Comments(0)
2015-03-18 12:26:38 PM

Can we please stop subsidising them now?

BEC CREW   12 MAR 2015

 

A massive new study conducted in Australia has found that homeopathy is no more effective in treating ailments and disorders than placebos.

Conducted by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the report is an examination of 1,800 papers testing the effects of all kinds of alternative medicines over the past two decades. The team found that out of all these papers, only 225 could be included in their analysis due to a general lack of actual science. 

Of the papers they looked at, they conducted "an overview of published systematic reviews by an independent contractor; an independent evaluation of information provided by homeopathy interest groups and the public; and a consideration of clinical practice guidelines and government reports on homeopathy published in other countries."

They looked at a wide range of over 20 health conditions, from coughs and eczema to bronchitis and heroin addiction, and assessed the quality of the evidence provided in the papers. If a paper’s conclusion was convincing, it got a rating of one - which means 'very strong' - and if it was dubious, it got a rating of four - 'very weak'. 

The idea behind homeopathy is that you can actually treat yourself with substances derived from plants, minerals, or animals, that would normally make you sick, as long as it’s in a small enough dose. That small dose then prompts an immune response and strengthens the person’s ability to ward off infections and other diseases. While a major criticism is that homeopathic treatments contain a minuscule amount of the actual ingredient, advocates say that minuscule amount is all it takes to treat ailments such as coughs, headaches, asthma, and depression.

The conclusion of the study blows that declaration out of the water, stating:

"There was no reliable evidence from research in humans that homeopathy was effective for treating the range of health conditions considered: no good-quality, well-designed studies with enough participants for a meaningful result reported either that homeopathy caused greater health improvements than placebo, or caused health improvements equal to those of another treatment. 

For some health conditions, studies reported that homeopathy was not more effective than placebo."

The official advice given as a result of the report is that homeopathy should not be used to treat health conditions that are chronic, serious, or could become serious, as doing so could actually be putting yourself at a greater risk of getting even more sick. 

It’s a pretty damning statement, and while the Chair of the NHMRC Homeopathy Working Committee, Paul Glasziou from Bond University in Queensland, told Melissa Davey at The Guardian that some people will probably think it’s "all a conspiracy of the establishment," he hopes the report will prompt some people to reconsider selling or using homeopathic substances.

When given a chance to comment, Australian Homeopathic Association spokeswoman, Ana Lamaro, told Rebecca Trigger at ABC News that based on a draft position paper that was leaked in 2012, the NHMRC had already made up its mind about homeopathy, even before it started its review of the evidence. "We call that basically a prejudicial position, and of course they have to find exactly in such a manner or else they would have egg all over their faces," she said.

"People can erroneously waste their time and endanger their health by using remedies that they believe will work when they're not evidence based, and it's a waste of money and it's a danger to an individual's health," the Australian Medical Association (AMA) chair of the council of general practice, Brian Morton, said in response.

While many of our private health insurance policies still provide cover for alternative medicine, the Australian government is now considering stripping those rebates away in April if the advertised effects are not supported by scientific evidence.

The NHMRC has made the report, and plenty of supplementary materials, freely available on their website.

Sources: The Guardian, ABC News

 


Comments(0)
2014-07-30 10:55:50 AM

Medisyne se koste gaan nog styg

Nellie Brand-Jonker

VOLKSBLAD - Dinsdag 29 Julie 2014

Mediscor het in 2013 gemiddeld R2 424 per begunstigde aan medisyne bestee.

Die jaarlikse verslag van Mediscor oor die besteding van siekefondse op medisyne toon dit het verlede jaar met 1,9% tot R2 424 per begunstigde gestyg.

Madelein Bester, voordeelbestuurder van Mediscor, het dit toegeskryf aan die maksimum prysverhoging van 5,8% wat die departement van gesondheid verlede jaar op medisyne toegelaat het.

Die styging was die hoogste in jare. Vergeleke daarmee was die prysverhoging in 2012 meer as 2% en in 2011 is geen prysverhoging toegelaat nie.

Die styging in die besteding op medisyne hang af van onder meer die gemiddelde koste per item wat gekoop is. Die gemiddelde koste per item het met 2% tot R140 gestyg. Die gemiddelde koste per item hang weer af van ’n aantal faktore insluitende die staatsbeheerde verhoging in medisynepryse.

Mediscor, wat medisyne-eise vir siekefondse bestuur, stel die verslag jaarliks saam uit ’n steekproef van sowat 900 000 mediesefondslede. Bester het gesê ’n mandjie van dieselfde produkte wat hulle elke jaar meet om die impak van staatsbeheerde prysstygings te meet, het getoon dit het in 2013 met 2,9% gestyg. In die vorige jaar het dit met 0,4% gestyg.

Sy glo die besteding op medisyne gaan vanjaar met effe meer styg.

Dit is omdat die departement vanjaar ’n 5,82%-prysstyging toegelaat het. Die mandjie van produkte wat gemeet word, het reeds met gemiddeld 4,3%van Januarie tot Mei gestyg.

“Meer vervaardigers het in 2014 ’n styging toegepas wat nader aan die maksimum toegelate prysverhoging was,” het sy verduidelik.

Christo Rademan, besturende direkteur van Mediscor, het gesê die hoër koste van medisyne plaas bykomende druk op siekefondse gegewe hoe hoog mediese inflasie is. Mediese inflasie styg jaarliks baie meer as verbruikersprysinflasie.

Hy het gesê die beheer van medisynekoste deur middel van maatstawwe soos generiese medisyne en voorgeskrewe medisyne-lyste word al hoe belangriker.

Volgens Bester is die kostestyging per item in 2013 vir skemas laer as die mandjie wat hulle meet vanweë die maatstawwe wat geïmplementeer word. Sy het gesê die grootste impak is gekry deur middel van generiese medisyne.

Die meeste produkte wat in die afgelope jaar teruggeëis as, sowat 74,8% was generiese produkte. “Die voortgesette toename van generiese medisyne bring ’n wesenlike besparing vir verbruikers en vir siekefondse mee,” het sy gesê.

Top-10-toestande waarop siekefondse* geld bestee (persentasie besteding in hakies)

  1. Bloeddruk (11%)
  2. Kanker (6,3%)
  3. Diabetes (5,8%)
  4. Anti-depressante (4,4%)
  5. Maagsuur (4,3%)
  6. Cholesterol (4,2%)
  7. Anti-viraal (hoofsaaklik MIV) (3,1%)
  8. Anti-inflammatories (2,8%)
  9. Hoesmedisyne en asmaprodukte (2,7%)
  10. Antibiotika (2,7%)

* Siekefondse wie se medisyne-eise deur Mediscor bestuur word.

2013: Só het siekefondse op medisyne bestee

  • ​Sowat 40% van die besteding op medisyne word op akute medisyne (dag-tot-dag-voorskrifmedisyne) bestee. Die gemiddelde koste per item het 4,7% tot R112 gestyg.

  • Die tweede meeste, 3,9%, word op medisyne vir die behandeling van verpligte minimum voordele (’n lys van siektes en toestande waarvoor siekefondse volledig moet opdok) bestee. Die gemiddelde koste per item het 1,3% tot R154 gestyg.

  • Die derde meeste, 9,4%, is op onkologie-medisyne bestee. Dié medisyne verteenwoordig net 0,8% van die totale volume items wat geëis is. Die gemiddelde onkologie-produk het 3,5% tot R1 735 gedaal.

  • Sowat 72% van die besteding op medisyne is op 25 medisyne-groepe bestee. Die drie grootste groepe is steeds bloeddruk; kanker en diabetes. Die top-10-medisyne-groepe verteenwoordig amper 30% van totale besteding.

  • Die enkele produk wat die meeste tot koste bygedra het, was die insulien Lantus SoloSTAR wat 1,1% tot totale besteding bygedra het.

  • Cholesterol het afgeskuif na die sesde plek omdat ’n aantal generiese produkte op die mark gekom het wat dié medisyne goedkoper maak. Anti-depressante het opgeskuif na die vierde plek.

     


Comments(0)
2014-04-14 11:14:53 AM

Registrasiepil nog nie gesluk

2014-04-13 05:57

SOOS GEPUBLISEER IN RAPPORT VAN 13 APRIL 2014

Verbruikers sal langer moet wag voor hulle veiliger vitamiene, aanvullings en homeopatiese produkte op winkelrakke gaan sien.

Wysigings aan regulasies van die Wet op Medisyne en Verwante Stowwe het November 2013 in werking getree om komplementêre medisyne te beheer.

Die regulasies bevat streng vereistes waaraan die produkte moet voldoen wat betref verpakking, etikette, invoegsels én registrasie.

Die verkope van alternatiewe medisyne beloop sowat R8 miljard per jaar in Suid-Afrika. Bekende name sluit in Vital en Solal.

Die datum vir ’n verandering aan verpakking het egter gekom en gegaan sonder dat vervaardigers daaraan gehoor gegee het.

Verpakkings moes middel Februarie dié waarskuwing bevat: “Die medisyne is nie geëvalueer deur die Medisynebeheerraad nie. Die medisyne is nie bedoel vir die diagnose, behandeling, genesing of voorkoming van enige siekte nie.”

Allison Vienings, direkteur van die Self-Medication Manufacturers Association of South Africa (SMASA), sê die bedryf is in gesprek met die Medisynebeheerraad (MBR) om die regulasies te hersien.

“Ons wil nie noodwendig meer toegeeflike regulasies hê nie, maar meer geskikte regulasies.”

Die MBR sou glo Vrydag ’n versoek hieroor op ’n raadsvergadering oorweeg.

Vienings sê maatskappye kon ook aansoek doen om uitstel. Na verwagting sal uitstel tot middel Augustus gegee word.

Sy sê die groot rede hoekom die verpakking nog nie verander is nie, is omdat maatskappye nog baie voorraad het en die verandering en goedkeuring van die nuwe verpakking tyd sal verg.

Sy ontken dat die bedryf ’n besluit geneem het om nie die regulasies na te kom nie.

Vienings sê boonop is die interpretasie van die regulasies deur die MBR dat dit vitamiene en minerale asook sekere ander produkte insluit.

Die MBR het die bedryf in kennis gestel dat dié produkte met onmiddellike ingang van die mark gehaal moet word totdat dit geregistreer is.

Sy sê die MBR se definisie van komplementêre medisyne verskil van die bedryf s’n. Die bedryf wil onder meer hê dat die MBR se definisie gewysig moet word.

“Die produkte was veronderstel om onttrek te wees aan die mark, maar ons is in die proses van dialoog met die MBR,” sê Vienings.

Volgens Norman Fells van nog ’n bedryfsliggaam – Health Products Association (HPA) – is daar groot verwarring in die bedryf oor watter produkte onder die regulasies val.

Hy sê die bedryf wil die regulasies heronderhandel. Volgens hom is dit nie weens teenkanting teen die regulasies dat verpakkings nie teen Februarie verander is nie.

“Maatskappye was nie in staat om dit na te kom nie,” sê hy.

Die regulasies het net voor die feestyd in werking getree en van die vereistes – soos dat die aanwysings en inligting in twee tale moet wees, en dat die produkte ook nou invoegsels moet bevat – skep probleme vir die maatskappye.

“Ons wil beslis die cowboys uit die mark hê, dié wat beweer hulle kan kanker genees en so... (maar) die regulasies is heeltemal onvanpas vir komplementêre medisyne.”

Hy hoop die bedryf sal volgende week duidelikheid van die MBR kry.

Jannie Nel van die vervaardigingsmaatskappy Wrapsa sê die doel van die nuwe regulasies is om die veiligheid, gehalte en doeltreffendheid van die medisyne te verbeter.

“Dikwels is daar swak toestande waaronder die produkte vervaardig, bemark en aan die publiek verkoop word.”

Hy sê daar sal registrasiedokumente vir komplementêre medisyne ingedien moet word en dan sal die vervaardigingsaanlegte en prosesse van vervaardiging geïnspekteer word.

“Van 15 November af moet enige nuwe medisyne wat die mark binnekom eers volledig geregistreer wees voor dit verkoop kan word,” sê hy.

Registrasiespertyd vir produkte

Verskeie spertye wat strek tot in 2019 word vir die verskillende kategorieë van produkte gegee om geregistreer te word:

* Die nuwe regulasies het reeds in Desember vereis dat produk- te wat verbode stowwe bevat ingevolge ’n lys van die mark gehaal moet word. In Desember moes produkte wat aktiewe bestanddele bevat wat in skedule-medisyne voorkom, ook van die mark gehaal word as dit nog nie geregistreer is nie.

* In Mei tree die volgende spertyd in werking wanneer alternatiewe medisyne wat aansprake maak ten opsigte van MIV/vigs; diabetes, kanker en hartsiektes, geregistreer moet word.

* Teen November 2015 moet alle produkte wat aansprake oor gewigsverlies maak, asook seksuele opkikkeringsmedisyne, geregistreer wees.

* In 2016 moet produkte wat immuunstelsel-aanvullers is en spiere help bou, asook sportaanvullings wat medisinale aansprake maak, geregistreer word.

 

 


Comments(50)
2013-08-27 10:03:14 AM

SOOS GEPUBLISEER IN SAKE 24 VAN 24.08.2013

 

Aptekers doodgewurg deur wet, reuse

 

Deur: Nellie Brand-Jonker2013-08-24 23:29

Die klant is nog skaars deur die deur dan roep JC Potgieter van Tyger Manor Pharmacy al vriendelik hallo. Hy groet hom op sy voornaam. Is jy hier vir jou pilletjies?

Dit is die soort apteker wat al dekades in jou woonbuurt is, jou en jou kwale ken, weet wie jou huisdokter is en wat jou kinders se name is.Maar aptekers is onder druk. Net in 2012 het 91 apteke toegemaak, volgens die vereniging vir onafhanklike aptekers (Icpa).Potgieter – wat al 25 jaar ’n apteker is – sê hy kan al amper ’n boek skryf oor wat in die aptekerswese gebeur het.

Die enkele grootste probleem is moeilik om uit te lig.Hy meen dis die resepteringsgeld wat van 2004 af beheer word en dat die “korporatiewe ouens” – soos hy die groot winkelgroepe noem – ook met apteke begin het.In ’n onlangse peiling van die versekeraar PPS onder aptekers het 86% van die respondente gesê hulle voel bedreig deur die uitbreiding van apteke in groot kleinhandelwinkels.’n Klipgooi van mekaar in Bellville is twee groot winkelsentrums, Tygervallei en Willowbridge. Dan tik hy die apteke af: Clicks het nou ’n apteek binne en buite Tygervallei-sentrum, waar daar reeds ’n apteek was.“Toe kom Dis-Chem en sê die noordelike voorstede kan mos nie sonder ’n Dis-Chem nie en trek in Willowbridge in. Toe kry Shoprite ’n lisensie. Nou is Dis-Chem in Willowbridge-Suid en Shoprite se MediRite in Willowbridge-Noord.”

Toe Potgieter sy apteek drie jaar gelede na ’n ander perseel in Bellville skuif, moes hy in sy lisensie-aansoek kon bewys daar is ’n behoefte in daardie deel.Die idee met die verandering aan wetgewing ’n dekade gelede sodat nie-aptekers apteke kan open, was om apteke in onbediende gebiede te kry.“Dit klink goed, maar toe die korporatiewe ouens inkom, sit hulle almal in die sentrums en hulle maak almal daar oop.”Gemeenskapsaptekers het hulle uiteindelik tot die howe begin wend oor die maatskappye wat langs hulle apteke oopmaak, maar dit kos baie geld en dit is waarskynlik al te laat as daar na die snelle uitbreiding in maatskappye se apteke gekyk word.Boonop kan die groot groepe dit bekostig om afslag te gee op die resepteringsgeld.

Hy praat van die “26/26-regulasies” (sien onder die berig) wat in 2004 die resepterings­geld begin beheer het wat aptekers mag hef op die prys van medisyne.Hofsake oor die lae resepteringsgeld het gevolg en ’n hoër een is in 2010 ingestel. “Maar dit het nie regtig veel waarde nie,” sug hy. “Geen mediese fonds betaal daarvolgens nie en die korporatiewe ouens bly by die 26/26.”Dít is nie opdwingbaar nie omdat dit ’n maksimum prys is. Dié wat dit kan bekostig, kan ­laer resepteringsgeld vra.“Die maatskappye laat almal verstaan dat hulle so wonderlik is, maar hulle doen dit nie om aptekerswese te bevorder nie, hulle doen dit om meer voete by die deur in te kry.“Hulle hoef nie uitsluitlik wins op hul medisyne te maak nie. Hulle maak hul wins op die ander gedeeltes.”

Nog ’n kopseer is aangewese diensverskaffers. Chroniese medisyne is ’n voordeel wat mediese fondse ingevolge wetgewing verplig is om aan lede te bied. Die fondse mag hul finansiële las verlig deur aangewese diensverskaffers te kontrakteer.Dié aangewese diensverskaffers is meestal die korporatiewe apteke, volgens Potgieter. Hy kan dit nie verstaan nie.Mediese fondse “beboet” hul lede met tot 30% as hulle nie by ’n apteek binne die aangewese netwerk diensverskaffers chroniese pille koop nie.“Hulle sê ons weet jy laaik jou apteker, maar as jy jou pille by hom kry, betaal jy 30% meer.

Die ekonomie is van so aard dat baie mense dit nie kan bekostig om daai 30% te betaal nie . . . al braai hulle oor die naweek by jou. En ek kan nie bekostig om hulle daardie afslag te gee nie, want dan verkoop ek die produk onder die kosprys.”Hy sê eers het hulle klante aan die Clicks of Dis-Chem naby hulle afgestaan.

Nou verloor hulle klante weens die aangewese diensverskaffers.Hoeveel sake hulle verloor, is moeilik om te sê. Hy maak ’n duimsuig-beweging. “Ek sal sê dis 30%, maar die volgende ou sal sê dis 50% of 80%.”Maar hy voel dit “baie beslis” aan sy geldsake.

Minder klante beteken die omset groei nie saam met uitgawes, wat met inflasie styg, nie.“Dis ’n drukgang . . . ’n Mens vat tog ’n risiko met ’n onderneming. Aptekers lewe seker nie sleg nie, ek wil nie kla met die witbrood onder die arm nie. Maar as jy kyk na sommige ander bedrywe, kan die meeste ouens hul onderneming laat groei en word hulle nie so in wetgewing vasgevang nie.”Hulle het ook die impak op ander ondernemings gesien wanneer die groot winkelgroepe op hul gebied begin speel het: ysterwarewinkels, klein kafees, drankwinkels.“Maar ek het nooit gedink in ’n professionele beroep sou ons dit sien gebeur nie. Ons word deur wetgewing doodgewurg . . .”

Reseptering

So werk die resepteringsgeld:

Op ’n apteekrekening verskyn die resepteringsgeld onder die prys van die produk. Dis die inkomste wat die apteker op medisyne hef.Resepteringsgeld is ingestel toe prysbeheer op medisyne ingestel is. Dit het verseker dat medisyne landwyd teen dieselfde prys aan almal verkoop word – die sogenaamde enkeluitgangsprys.Die resepteringsgeld was aanvanklik 26% van die enkeluitgangsprys tot ’n maksimum van R26, ongeag die produk se prys. Dus sou die resepteringsgeld van ’n produk wat R2 000 kos, R26 wees en dié van ’n R10-produk R2,60.Die konstitusionele hof het gesê dis onvanpas en dié gelde is in 2010 herbeding.Nou word ’n formule gebruik wat verskil na gelang van die prys van die produk.

 


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2013-08-02 12:57:05 AM

Is jou dokter te duur?

Nuwe pryslys kom gou

 SOOS GEPUBLISEER IN SAKE24  - Jul 03 2013 06:33 NELLIE BRAND-JONKER

Kaapstad. – Verbruikers sal moontlik teen Januarie 2014 ’n pryslys hê waarmee hulle sal kan bepaal of ’n dokter en tandarts buitensporige pryse vra.

Shivani Ramjee, ’n gesondheidsaktuaris en hoof van aktuariële wetenskappe van die Universiteit van Kaapstad, is deur die Raad op Gesondheidsberoepe (RGB) aangestel om hom te help om riglynpryse “wetenskaplik” op te stel. Die RGB hoop dat dit teen Januarie gereed sal wees.

Die vraag wat buitensporige of onetiese pryse is, is al jare ’n groot kopseer vir verbruikers, mediese fondse en mediese praktisyns, en die RGB kan al jare nie sy wetlike mandaat vervul om verbruikers by te staan met hul klagtes oor pryse nie.

Die Wet op Gesondheidsberoepe maak voorsiening daarvoor dat die RGB prysriglyne mag opstel en gebruik om klagtes oor buitensporige pryse te hanteer.

Die poging wat die RGB in 2012 aangewend het om sulke riglyne op te stel, het soveel kritiek gekry dat dit teruggetrek is. Uiteindelik is die hele proses van voor af begin.

Die sluitingsdatum vir kommentaar was vroeër vanjaar en Ramjee sê meer as 80 voorleggings is ontvang. In April is ’n suksesvolle vergadering met belangegroepe gehou.

Sy beskryf die bepaling van prysriglyne in Suid-Afrika as “kompleks en morsig”.

Die hooggeregshof het in 2010 die verwysingspryslys wat die departement van gesondheid opgestel het, tersyde gestel.

Die RGB het op ’n tyd ’n riglyn gestel dat pryse wat drie keer (300%) meer as die verwysingspryse is, oneties is.

In 2008 het hy beginsels aanvaar dat pasiënte skriftelik toestemming moet gee as pryse meer is as dié op die pryslys, andersins sou dit as buitensporig beskou kon word.

Omdat daar nie meer ’n verwysingspryslys is nie, het die RGB niks waarteen hy pryse kan meet om te bepaal of dit buitensporig is nie, sê Ramjee.

“Dit het tot gevolg gehad dat pasiënte buitensporige pryse gevra word sonder enige behoorlike beskerming,” het die Verbruikerskommissie in sy voorlegging gesê.

Mediese fondse gebruik tans meestal die 2006-pryslys (wat nie tersyde gestel is nie) en pas dit vir inflasie aan om te bepaal watter persentasie van die prys hulle sal betaal of hulle onderhandel individueel met dokters.

In 2012 het die RGB konsepriglyntariewe opgestel op grond van die 2006-verwysingspryse deur dit vir inflasie aan te pas.

Ramjee meen die uiteindelike formaat van die riglyne sal iets soos die verwysingspryslys wees, wat ’n lys van kodes van mediese prosedures gee waaraan ’n prys gekoppel word.

Tans word die proses bepaal waarvolgens die waarde van elke kode bepaal moet word. Die Mededingingskommissie sal uiteindelik ’n mening moet uitspreek oor die proses.

“Dit sal pasiënte ’n objektiewe verwysingspunt gee om te bepaal hoe redelik die prys is wat gevra word. Daar is nie nou so iets nie en pasiënte het dus geen idee of die prys wat hulle gevra is, normaal is of nie.”

Riglynpryse:

* Die Raad op Gesondheidsfinansiers het tot 2004 ’n lys van aanbevole pryse vir mediese fondse gehad. Dit is met die Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Vereniging beding. Die mededingingsowerheid het egter gesamentlike bedinging verbied.

* Die Raad op Mediese Skemas (RMS) het toe tot in 2006 namens die departement van gesondheid die nasionale verwysingspryslys gepubliseer.

* Die departement het in 2007 die verwysingspryslys begin publiseer.

* In 2008 het die Raad op Gesondheidsberoepe (RGB) sy etiese-tariefbepaling afgeskaf (hiervolgens was pryse van meer as drie keer die aanbevole prys oneties) omdat hy van mening was dat die pryse op die verwysingspryslys wel billike vergoeding vir dokters was.

* In 2010 is die departement se verwysingspryslyste vir 2007, 2008 en 2009 deur die hooggeregshof tersyde gestel, onder meer omdat die regte proses nie gevolg is nie.

* Sommige mediese skemas gebruik sedertdien die 2006-pryslys en pas dit vir inflasie aan.

* Sedertdien is daar verwarring oor pryse. Dit het die RGB in 2012 genoop om nuwe riglyne op te stel op grond van die 2006-verwysingspryslys, wat nie deur die hof tersyde gestel is nie.

 

 

 


Comments(5)
2013-07-29 12:00:00 AM

Medisynepryse kan nie hoër – ondanks swak rand

 SOOS GEPUBLISEER IN SAKE24 Jun 05 2013 07:07

 ’n Swak rand kan farmaseutiese groepe laat les opsê omdat die staat se enkeluitgangprys beteken dat hulle nie sommer medisynepryse kan verhoog nie.

“Plaaslike farmaseutiese maatskappye voer bykans al die aktiewe farmaseutiese bestanddele in wat hulle nodig het vir die vervaardiging van oor-die-toonbank- en voorskrifmedikasie,” sê Abdul Davids, hoof van navorsing van Kagiso Batebestuur.

Die rand se wisselkoers teenoor die dollar beteken dat die koste daarvan die hoogte inskiet, want dit word in dollar betaal.

“Baie van die groepe se marges het as gevolg daarvan verswak.”

Adcock Ingram se bruto winsmarge het in die ses maande tot 42,2% (46,7%) afgeneem. Dr. Jonathan Louw, uitvoerende hoof, sê Adcock verwag dat marges onder verdere druk gaan kom weens koste en die pryse van aktiewe bestanddele wat regstreeks aan wisselkoersbewegings gekoppel is.

Die gemiddelde wisselkoers waarteen Adcock in die oorsigmaande aankope gedoen het, was R8,75 teenoor die dollar (2012: R7,57) en R11,08 teenoor die euro (2012: R10,48).

Adcock genereer sowat twee derdes van sy omset uit voorskrif- en oor-die-toonbankmedisyne waarvoor aktiewe bestanddele ingevoer word.

Mededingers soos Aspen voel ook die druk. Hy besit wel sy eie aanlegte in die buiteland wat die bestanddele vervaardig, maar Davids sê die vervaardigingsaanlegte moet ook winsgewend bedryf word en kan dus nie die plaaslike afdeling ten koste van homself tegemoet kom nie.

“Dis ’n uitdaging om nie geld te verloor nie. Die onlangse aanpassing aan die enkeluitgangprys van 5% is nie baie groot nie en die volgende aanpassing sal eers oor sowat ’n jaar gedoen word,” sê Louw.

Adcock het produkte ontwikkel wat minder aan die enkeluitgangprys gebonde is.

Waar 80% van sy oor-die-toonbank-medikasie vyf jaar gelede daaraan onderhewig was, het hy die aanvullende produkreekse so uitgebrei dat net 50% nou daaraan onderhewig is.

Volgens hom kan farmaseutiese vervaardigers om ’n Regulasie 8- tussentydse verhoging van die enkeluitgangprys aansoek doen indien die vervaardigingskoste nog aansienlik styg.

Die maatskappye sal egter eers moet bewys dat hulle verliese ly.

 


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2013-07-28 12:00:00 AM
SONBRANDROME/SUNTAN LOTIONS
11/12/2012 08:40:19 AM

 

SOOS GEPUBLISEER IN VOLKSBLAD VAN 7 DESEMBER 2012

DIE Kankervereniging van Suid-Afrika (Kansa) is vroeër vanjaar in omstredenheid gedompel toe die uitslag van toetse op sonbrandrome op die Suid-Afrikaanse mark nie bekend gemaak is nie.

Die nuus het uitgelek dat talle van die produkte nie naastenby so doeltreffend is soos mens wil glo nie en Kansa is skerp gekritiseer dat hy nie met die hele sak patats vorendag gekom het nie.

Die toetse was ’n voorloper vir Kansa se planne om sy standaarde vir plaaslike sonbrandrome (wat Kansa se seël van goedkeuring dra) te verhoog, sê Sue Janse van Rensburg, uitvoerende hoof van Kansa.

Die probleem lê by beskerming teen UVA-strale.

“Navorsing oor die laaste paar jaar het gewys daar is ’n daadwerklike verband tussen UVA-strale en melanoom.”

Dié vorm van velkanker kom minder algemeen voor, maar dis dodelik en baie aggressief.

Navorsing in Kaapstad het gewys die voorkoms van melanoom hier is selfs hoër as in Australië – die land wat die onbenydenswaardige kroon dra as die streek met die hoogste voorkoms van velkanker wêreldwyd.

Daarom het Kansa sowat twee jaar gelede besluit om sy visier ook op die UVA-beskerming in sonbrandrome op die Suid-Afrikaanse mark te rig.

“In die verlede was die sonbeskermingsfaktor (SBF) gefokus op UVB, maar UVA-beskerming raak al hoe belangriker.”

Volgens Janse van Rensburg voldoen sonbrandrome op die Suid-Afrikaanse mark aan die riglyne van die Suid-Afrikaanse Buro vir Standaarde (SABS) – so daar is ’n minimum standaard, maar Kansa wil daardie standaard nou verhoog.

“Van 1 April 2013 af moet alle sonbrandrome wat die nuwe Kansa-seël dra aan die Europese Colipa-standaard voldoen,” sê Janse van Rensburg.

Die omstrede toetse op sonbrandrome vroeër vanjaar was juis Kansa se pogings om voorlopig te kyk hoeveel produkte op die plaaslike mark aan die Colipa-standaard voldoen.

Voorheen is produkte wat in Suid-Afrika en byvoorbeeld ook Brittanje getoets is, nie aan voortoetsing onderwerp nie. Die nuwe proses behels dat chemiese middels teen UVA ook aan voortoetsing onderwerp word om te kyk hoe stabiel dit bly as dit aan UV-strale blootgestel word.

“Kansa het 35 sonbrandprodukte getoets wat tans op die mark is en meer as die helfte het nie aan Europese standaarde voldoen nie,” het dr. Carl Albrecht, Kansa se navorsingshoof, vroeër vanjaar op ’n kankerseminaar gesê.

Dit blyk dat van die grootste sondaars op ons rakke Amerikaanse produkte is.

Janse van Rensburg sê Kansa het nie destyds die toetsuitslae bekend gemaak nie omdat net sowat ’n tiende van die produkte op ons winkelrakke getoets is.

Boonop was dit voorlopige toetse (die hele proses is nie afgehandel nie), maar dit het gewys dat talle produkte te kort skiet.

Die toetse het gewys produkte op die plaaslike mark bied wel beskerming teen UVA-strale, maar die chemiese middels in die produkte bly nie lank stabiel as dit aan sonlig blootgestel word nie.

“Sulke produkte sou jy dus elke uur tot uur en ’n half moes aansmeer eerder as die gebruiklike twee tot drie uur,” sê Janse van Rensburg.

Met die nuwe seël wil Kansa aan verbruikers wys dat die betrokke sonbrandroom aan die Europese standaard voldoen.

“Die (vorige) Suid-Afrikaanse standaard het nie dieselfde stabiliteit as byvoorbeeld Europese produkte nie. Die verweerders van UVA kan gouer afgebreek word.”

Kansa lys op sy webblad talle sonbrandrome wat reeds aan die Colipa-standaard voldoen. Volgens Janse van Rensburg dra talle van die sonbrandrome nog nie die nuwe Kansa-seël nie omdat vervaardigers eers hul “ou” verpakking wil gebruik.

“Nog ’n klomp vervaardigers is besig met toetse sodat hul produkte ook die nuwe seël kan dra.”

En as jy onseker is, smeer daai sonbrandroom maar elke 90 minute dik aan.

• Vir meer inligting besoek Kansa se webblad by www.cansa.org.za.




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2013-07-27 12:00:00 AM

SOOS GEPUBLISEER IN VOLKSBLAD VAN 24.11.2012

Antoinette Pienaar


OLIMPIESE atlete wat betrap word dat hulle met anaboliese androgeniese steroïede (AAS) speel, kan vorentoe die risiko loop om ’n volgende Spele mis te loop.

Dit is as die wêreldagentskap teen verbode middels (Wada) se jongste voorstelle vir sy 2015-kode – om die skorsing van oortreders te verdubbel van twee tot vier jaar – aanvaar word.

Vir beroepsatlete wie se inkomste van hul sport afhang, is dit ’n hoë prys om te betaal.

Talle is waarskynlik terdeë bewus van die fisieke en psigiese gevolge van steroïedgebruik en waag “berekende” kanse om daarmee weg te kom.

Dis egter op die minder glansryke amateurvlak waar jong sportlui regtig met vuur speel, veral as hulle nog op skool is en neurologies en fisiek besig is om te ontwikkel, sê kenners.

In Suid-Afrika was die gebruik van AAS die afgelope tyd weer in die nuus toe ’n 17-jarige Cravenweek-rugbyspeler positief getoets is daarvoor.

’n Leser het geskryf hy is verstom om te sien hoe jong spelers op hoërskool binne weke in 100 kg-reuse ontaard. Hy glo dit is toe te skryf aan AAS.

Chris Hattingh van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut vir Dwelmvrye Sport (Saids) meen daar is ouers en afrigters, veral in welvarende skole, wat dalk anderpad kyk of selfs help dat die jonges dit kry.

Sedert 2008 is meer as 115 Suid-Afrikaners betrap dat hulle verbode middels gebruik, onder meer AAS.

AAS is aanvanklik ontwikkel as medisyne en word onder meer voorgeskryf om beengroei en aptyt te stimuleer en puberteit aan te help by seuns by wie dit vertraag is. Die ontdekking dat dit saam met die regte kosse mense se spiere laat bult en meer krag gee, het daartoe gelei dat dit gebruik word deur liggaamsbouers en sportlui.

Onwettig ingevoer

Dit word in gimnasiums gesmous of, volgens Hattingh, onwettig ingevoer van plekke soos Amerika, Indië en sekere Oosterse lande. Aptekers, dokters en veeartse het ook al daarmee gesmous.

Dit is onwettig omdat AAS ingevolge die Medisynewet geklassifiseer word as bylae 5-medisyne en dus net deur dokters om mediese redes voorgeskryf mag word.

’n Bron van die departement van gesondheid sê die onwettige verkope is “’n massiewe probleem”. “Dit word weekliks in- en uitgesmokkel. Die monetêre waarde daarvan is so groot dat mense wat gevang word eenvoudig nie afgeskrik word om dit weer en weer te doen nie.
“Daar is ook klandestiene laboratoriums wat die grondstowwe invoer en in haglike omstandighede steroïede vervaardig. Dit is spuitstowwe wat sommer in ’n oond ‘gesteriliseer’ word.

“Veterinêre steroïede is ook ’n groot probleem omdat dit aan mense verkoop word as sogenaamde ‘super-steroïede’.”

Die bron sê die meeste AAS waarop die polisie beslag lê, is nie in Suid-Afrika geregistreer nie en die veiligheid daarvan is nie vasgestel nie.

“Steroïede is ook nie goedgekeur as medisyne vir liggaamsbou nie. As ’n algemene praktisyn dit dus voorskryf daarvoor, oortree hy die wet.”

Die straf vir mense wat onwettige AAS besit, vervaardig, invoer of versprei, kan wissel van boetes tot tronkstraf.

Hattingh en dr. Jon Patricios, ’n Gautengse sportdokter, waarsku ook dat sportaanvullings wat wel wettig en vrylik op die mark beskikbaar is, besmet kan wees met steroïede sonder dat dit op die etikette aangedui word. Dié bedryf word swak gereguleer en dit is vir spelers moeilik om te weet watter produkte betroubaar is.

Weens die swak regulasies en moontlike gehalteverskille tussen sommige besendings weier Saids byvoorbeeld om enige aanvullings te onderskryf.

Volgens Patricios is die newe-effekte van AAS al goed omskryf in navorsing. “Hoewel die aknee, aggressie en depressiewe gemoedstoestand verwar kan word met ’n adolessent se ontwikkeling, is die hartvergroting, hoë bloeddruk en cholesterol, lewerskade en lae spermtellings dalk meer versteek en langdurend.”

Aggressie

Navorsers aan die Northeastern University in Boston, Amerika, het in eksperimente op hamsters bevind die brein se vermoë om serotonien te produseer word dalk deur AAS belemmer. Dit dra by daartoe dat gebruikers aggressief raak. Die aggressie bly glo lank nadat die AAS-inname gestaak word.

Adolessente se breinstelsels wat serotonien reguleer, ontwikkel nog en dit kan wees dat die AAS om dié rede blywende aggressie kan veroorsaak.

Patricios praat van “Roids ­Rage”. Die gebruikers raak geïrriteerd en beleef ’n hoë vlak van onbeheerste energie (manie).

Sommige ervaar selfs vals opvattings (delusies).

’n Studie het al in die laat 1980’s aan die lig gebring dat gewigoptellers ’n groter kans het om paranoïede delusies te hê.

Hulle was angstiger, depressiewer en vyandiger.

Dr. Harm Kuipers van die Universiteit van Limburg in Nederland skryf in die Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science dat AAS ook gebruikers se seksdrang kan verhoog, al belemmer dit ereksies.


Dit tesame met die verhoogde aggressie kan selfs die moontlikheid van seksuele aanranding vergroot.

Sweedse navorsers het in 2008 in The Lancet geskryf gevallestudies is al gepubliseer van kragatlete wat AAS gebruik wat gewelddadig was teenoor hul vriendinne.

Navorsers het later gesê impulsiewe geweld kom veral voor wanneer AAS-gebruikers ook alkohol drink.

Volgens die 2011 Discovery Sharksmart-peiling onder 12 000 skoolkinders in KwaZulu-Natal het AAS-gebruikers ’n vier keer groter kans gehad as hul maats om by gevegte betrokke te wees en selfmoordgedagtes te hê.

Om mooi te lyk

Net 30% van die jong gebruikers wat aan die Sharksmart-peiling deelgeneem het, doen dit vir beter sportprestasie. Twee derdes het dit gedoen om goed te lyk.

Dié studie het getoon 4,6% van seuns en 1,2% van meisies het al AAS gebruik, sommige op so jonk as 13.

Altesaam 11% het gesê hulle was onder druk van afrigters of maats om dit te gebruik en byna 10% onder druk van hul ouers.

Altesaam 43% van die kinders het die AAS by hul vriende gekry, 20% by hul afrigters en gimnasiums, 14% by skoolpersoneellede, 10% by algemene praktisyns, 7% op die internet en 7% by hul ouers.

Dit is nie net mans nie

Saids se statistieke toon minstens 15 vroue, onder wie ’n rugbyspeler, liggaamsbouers, gewigoptellers en verskeie atlete, is sedert 1999 hier positief getoets vir AAS.

’n Studie onder 7 544 hoërskoolmeisies in 2003 in Amerika het getoon 5,3% het al AAS gebruik (teenoor 1,2% van Kwa-Zulu-Natalse meisies in die Sharksmart-peiling).

Dié meisies het nie noodwendig aan sport deelgeneem nie.

Hulle was meer geneig as hul maats om voor 13 seks te hê, tot swangerskap en drankoortredings, om wapens te dra, te ba-klei, hartseer en hopeloos te voel of selfmoord te probeer pleeg.

Volgens die navorsers aan die Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, Amerika, val die meisies makliker deur die krake omdat die owerhede meer op die seuns fokus.

SO BENADEEL STEROïEDE JOU

Algemene newe-effekte:

  • Erge velinfeksie as die middel met bakterieë besmet is
  • Hoë cholesterol
  • Bloedverdikking
  • Berorete
  • Insulsienweerstand
  • Nierversaking
  • Lewerprobleme
  • Akneë en olierige vel
  • Rekmerke
  • Geel vel en oë
  • Slegte asem
  • Swak senings
  • Naarheid en braking

ADOLOSSENTE

  • Stop die groei van die skelet se lang bene (in die arms en bene) - die persoon is uiteindelik dus korter as wat hy geneties bestem is om te wees
  • Voortydige geslagsontwikkeling

MANS

  • Haarverlies
  • Ontwikkeling van borsweefsel (ginekomastie)
  • Ingeperkte seksuele funksie en onvrugbaarheid
  • Tydelike testikulêre atrofie
  • Lae spermtelling

VROUE

  • Manlike haargroeipatroon (baard, borshare, ens.)
  • Growwe vel
  • Permanente verdieping van stem
  • Kleiner borste
  • Kan fetale ontwikkeling tydens swangerskap beïnvloed, bv. die ontwikkeling van manlike eienskappe in 'n vroulike fetus en vroulike eienskappe in 'n manlike fetus
  • Veranderede menstruele siklus
  • Siste op die eierstokke (vroue)
  • Vergrote klitoris

HARTPROBLEME

Hartvergroting en verdikking van die linkerventrikel wat die hart se sametrekking en ontspanning beïnvloed kan lei tot:

  • Hoë bloeddruk
  • Abnormale hartritme
  • Hartversaking
  • Hartaanval

PSIGOLOGIESE EFFEKTE

  • Beïnvloed die serotonievlak in die brein
  • Verhoogde aggressie
  • Angs
  • Maniese episodes
  • Selfmoord
  • Depressie
  • Geïrriteerdheid
  • Delusies (vals opvattings)



Comments(1)
2013-07-26 12:00:00 AM

VACCINATION CAMPAIGN

Taking action against flu

With autumn just around the corner, we need to start thinking about protecting ourselves against the dangerous influenza strains about to hit us. In fact, a trip to your pharmacy, GP, hospital or clinic for your annual flu shot might just be the smartest thing you can do this season.

According to the World Health Organisation, influenza epidemics affect up to 15% of the global population every year, which leads to between 250 000 to 500 000 deaths. Flu vaccines are therefore highly recommended by healthcare practitioners as a precautionary step to protect ourselves against the dangerous virus strains which have the ability to cause a pandemic if not controlled and treated correctly.

The Independent Community Pharmacy Association (ICPA) has joined the National Department of Health in driving an awareness campaign which highlights the risks of influenza and the benefits of having the flu vaccine. The Influenza Vaccination Campaign is endorsed and supported by the National Department of Health and the two pharmaceutical companies supplying influenza vaccines to the South African healthcare market, Abbott and Sanofi Pasteur.

“Last year more than a million flu vaccinations were administered in South Africa, and this year we’d like to see these numbers increased significantly,” says Sham Moodley, ICPA Chairperson. “Due to the extensive footprint and reach of independent pharmacies throughout South Africa, we are well positioned to play an important role in this campaign,” says Sham.The vaccine quantities provided to the South African health sector by pharmaceutical companies are based on previous years’ uptake, population growth factors and the manufacturing capacity based on world demand. With the Influenza Vaccination Campaign, the ICPA also wants to ensure that every single vaccination supplied to healthcare service providers this season is administered, contributing significantly to our population’s overall health.

People considered to be in high risk groups can get their flu vaccinations for free from government clinics or hospitals. The high risk groups are:

· Pregnant women

· People over 65 years of age;

· Those with chronic heart disease, diabetes or chronic lung disease, especially asthmatics

· People living with HIV/Aids or other reduced immune system related conditions

However, getting vaccinated before winter is something even the healthiest person should consider, and they can get their flu shot for a nominal fee at any private healthcare organisation, such as your local pharmacy.

“South Africa has been very lucky as we have only had isolated cases of dangerous influenza viruses such as bird flu and swine flu which caused havoc in Europe and Asia,” says Sham. He adds: “With new types of virus strains developing every winter, it is important that we protect our people and maintain our status as a country with only a moderate percentage of these dangerous influenza strains.”

Some general facts about flu vaccination:

· Flu vaccines protect against the three influenza viruses that research by global and national healthcare organisations indicates will be most common during the upcoming season

· Influenza vaccines will not give you flu. It only contains non-infectious particles of the virus, which merely alert the body to the threat of the virus

· Regarding side effects, flu vaccines are considered to be very safe with the most common associated reaction being only a mild soreness at the sight of the injection

“This campaign goes hand in hand with our health sector’s renewed focus on overall wellness and primary healthcare,” says Sham. “The ICPA looks forward to assisting millions of South Africans to put their health first with the administration of flu shots being an important part of this initiative.”


Comments(0)
2013-07-25 12:00:00 AM

SNAKES

Different Snake Venoms
• Neurotoxic venom - Cobras and Mambas - attacks the
central nervous system, and starts to affect movement,
breathing, swallowing, speech and sight.
• Haematoxic venom - Boomslang - affects the blood by
using up the clotting factors so it no longer coagulates
leading to extensive blood loss into the tissues.
• Cytotoxic venom - Puff Adders - attacks the body cells
or tissues, this bite is extremely painful, with much
swelling and marked symptoms of shock.black mamba.jpg
• Myotoxic venom - sea snakes - attacks the muscles
and can lead to death from kidney and heart failure.

 Black Mamba (Neurotoxic)
• One of Africa's most dangerous snakes.
• It's aggressive when cornered and will not hesitate to strike.
• It can reach speeds of up to 20 km/ph.
• It's the largest venomous snake in Africa with adults reaching an
average of 8 feet in length (2.5m).
• Black Mamba's are not black at all, but brown/olive skinned. Their
mouths are inky black which they show when threatened.
• Black Mambas live in savanna, scrub, tree hollows, and sometimes
people's homes.
• If a Black Mamba encounters prey it can strike up to 12 times, each
time delivering enough neuro and cardio-toxic venom to kill a dozen
men within 1 hour.
• Without anti-venom, the mortality rate is 100%

Green Mamba (Neurotoxic)
• Is a venomous snake related to the highly dangerous Black
Mamba.green mamba.jpg
• The Green Mamba is less aggressive and smaller than the Black
Mamba, they average around 6 feet.
• The Green Mamba's venom is also significantly less toxic, however
a single bite could certainly be fatal to a human.
• Green mambas are highly arboreal and almost never touch the
ground.
• They are generally found in south-eastern Africa.
• Like their name, Green Mambas are a lovely grass green color, but
yellow when born.

 Cape Cobra (Neurotoxic)
• Has a powerful venom and is one of the deadliest snakes in Southern
Africa.
• Cape Cobras grow to an average of around 4 feet.CAPE COBRA.jpg
• Cape Cobras are particularly dangerous because they tend to be nervous
and aggressive.
• Without treatment, the mortality rate in humans is 60% and death normally
occurs 2-5 hours after being bitten, usually as a result of respiratory failure
due to the onset of paralysis.
• The Cape Cobra is a beautiful looking snake some are yellow, some
copper/mahogany colored and some are purplish/black.
• The Cape Cobra loves to hunt for rodents and can climb trees to raid
weaver bird colonies.
• The Cape Cobra is common throughout dry regions in Southern Africa.

Mozambique Spitting Cobra
• In color the snake is slate to olive grey, olive orMOZAMBIUQE SPITTING COBRA.jpg
tawny brown above, with some or all scales
black-edging.
• Below, salmon pink to purple yellowish, with
black bars across the neck and ventrals
speckled or edged with brown or black.
• Young specimens sometimes have pink or
yellow bars on the throat.

It is considered one of the most dangerous snakes in
Africa, second only to the Mamba.
• Like the Rinkhals, it can spit its venom. Its bite causes
severe local tissue destruction (similar to that of the puff
adder). Venom to the eyes can also cause impaired
vision or blindness.
• This snake is a nervous and highly strung snake. When
confronted at close quarters this snake can rear up to as
much as two-thirds of its length, spread its long narrow
hood and will readily "spit" in defence, usually from a
reared-up position.


Puff Adder (Cytotoxic)
• Considered to be Africa's deadliest snake because it is responsible for thePUFF ADDER.jpg
most human fatalities.
• Puff Adders reach an average length of around 1 meter, and they're solidly
built with a wide girth.
• Color patterns vary depending on where they live, their habitats extend
throughout Africa except for dense rain forests and deserts.
• The Puff Adder has large fangs and its venom is powerful enough to kill a
grown man with a single bite.
• Puff Adders rely on camouflage for protection and lie still if approached.
Because of this, people tend to step on them and get bitten.
• Many fatalities occur because bites are not treated correctly, leading to
infection and gangrene.

Gaboon Viper (Cytotoxic)
• Has the longest fangs and the highest venom yield of any venomous snake
in the world.GABOON VIPER.jpg
• Gaboon Vipers can be found in West, Central and parts of East Africa, they
prefer forested areas.
• Adults reach an average length of around 5 feet.
• While the Gaboon Viper delivers a huge dose of venom, the venom is not
as toxic as some of the other snakes on this list. A single bite could kill a
man however.
• Gaboon Vipers are very interesting looking snakes with a huge triangular
shaped heads and pretty black, brown and pink markings.
• Gaboon Vipers are quite passive and rarely bite unless provoked or
stepped on (even then they don't always bite).

Boomslang (Haemotoxic)
• An extraordinarily dangerous snake found in sub-Saharan Africa.
• Human fatalities are rare, since this snake is very timid, but spectacular.BOOMSLANG.jpg
• It's venom is haemotoxic, which means that it affects the body’s natural
blood clotting mechanism resulting in the bleeding of the internal organs.
• Sometimes it can take as long as 24 hours before the symptoms of the
venom can be felt or seen. Once it gets to work however, a person can
bleed to death from every orifice.
• The Boomslang is a tree-dwelling snake (Boomslang means "tree snake" in
Afrikaans).
• Females are brown, and males are light green with black highlights.
• The Boomslang reaches an average length of 5 feet. Its fangs are at the
back of its head.

Twig / Vine Snake (Heamotoxic)
Appearance
• Colouring is similar to that of a twig; grey-brown with lighterVINE SNAKE.jpg
markings.
• Very long and thin averaging 1 metre in length.
• Head is elongated, with large eyes and horizontal pupils.
Venom
• Haemotoxic – disabling the clotting process and causing internal
and external bleeding.
• No antidote to a bite by this snake is available in South Africa.
The Bite
• Puncture marks at wound site.
• Actual bite not very painful.
• Likely to bleed copiously as blood clotting mechanism becomes
affected.

Rinkhals
• Southern Cape province of South Africa, N.E throughRINKHALS.jpg
the Free State, Lesotho, Transkei, Kwazulu Natal,South
Africa, Western Swaziland and parts of Gauteng, South
Africa.
• The Rinkhals has eclectic tastes. Its main prey is toads,
but it also eats small mammals, reptiles and other
amphibians.
• Like several other snakes, the Rinkhals is also known
for its ability to play dead.
• The Rinkhal only hunts at night because it is hiding from
the sun during the day.

Venom
The venom of the Rinkhals is neurotoxic and partially cytotoxic.
It generally aims its venom at the face. If the venom enters the eyes
it causes great pain.
• Symptoms of a bite
Local symptoms of swelling / bruising is reported in about 25% of
cases. General symptoms of drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, violent
abdominal pain, cramps and vertigo, or dizziness, often occur, as
does a mild reaction.
Vertigo = (refers to the sensation of spinning (subjective
vertigo) or the perception that surrounding objects are
moving or spinning (objective vertigo).

Defensive behaviour
When distressed the Rinkhals spreads its hood,
showing its distinctive striped neck.
The Rinkhals is a spitting snake, and can spray
its venom (which is neurotoxic) up to 2.5m.
It is also known to fake death by rolling onto its
back with its mouth agape.

 Types of Venomous Snake Bites
• Cobras and Mambas inject Neurotoxic venom which will affect theCAPE COBRA SNAKE BITE.bmp
nervous system and cause initial muscle weakness, blurred vision,
difficulty in swallowing and breathing and eventually paralysis.
Adders inject Cytotoxic venom which will cause massive swelling
and bruising to the area that was bitten, and could eventually burst
the skin open.
Boomslange and Vine Snakes inject Haemotoxic venom which
destroys the platelets in the blood and causes major internal
bleeding in the lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen etc., and blood will also
leak out of all orifices in your body, including minor wounds and
bruises.
Berg Adders are highly dangerous as they inject both Neurotoxic
and Cytotoxic venom into you.

Snake Bite Treatment
• What NOT to do:
Do not panic and run around as this will increase the blood
circulation and transport the venom quicker around the body.
Do not make a tourniquet (this means to tie a cloth tightly around
the arm or leg) as this will destroy the tissue of the arm or leg below
it and it might have to be amputated later, as well as concentrate
the venom (if it was a venomous bite) in the area and kill that body
part off quicker.
Do not cut and try to suck out the venom as we see them do in
cowboy movies, as the venom will still get absorbed into your bloodGREEN MAMBA SNAKE BITE.jpg
stream through your gums and cheeks.

What TO do:
Do loosen the clothing, pressure the patient, and keep
him calm and quiet.
Do dress the wound with a bandage and keep it cool (in
the shade). This will stop your blood vessels dilating and
decrease the blood flow in that area.
Do watch the patient carefully, if he loses
consciousness, apply the ABC's (see below).

The ABC's (these three things are useful to remember in the
majority of first aid situations):
A = Airways, tilt his neck backwards to get the tongue away from
the back of his throat and stop him from choking on it. Do not put a
blanket or anything under his head.
B = Breathing, look, listen and feel to check if he is still breathing.
If he has stopped breathing, give him one breath every five
seconds.
C = Circulation, check his pulse in his neck, on either side of his
windpipe, or listen for a heartbeat by putting your ear next to his
chest.

Once the situation has been assessed, then get help as quickly as
possible. Person would need to get to hospital soon.
• In hospital, if the snake is unknown, they would treat the patient
symptomatically, that is, they would put him on a breathing machine
if he stops breathing, give antibiotics if he shows signs of infection,
etc.
• Most people that get brought to hospital for snake bites, don't know
much about the snake, so the practice of giving the patient an antivenom
is only done is certain cases.
• (Besides, anti-venom is only housed in Cape Town and Pretoria, so
anyone hiking in the Drakensberg - South Africa - and that gets
bitten by a snake, will probably get brought to a Durban hospital,
hence the symptomatic treatment which is given - this applies to
South Africa).

Identification and Treatment of Snake Bites
• South Africa is said to have over 150 species of snakes and only a low
percentage of these are venomous.
• However, given the shock, distress and panic that most of us would
feel on unexpectedly encountering a snake, it is highly unlikely that
we would be able to easily identify whether the snake we were facing
was venomous or not!
• Learning and teaching ‘snake awareness’ to you and your family is an
important part of protecting you and them from snakes.
• This awareness of snakes and snake bites has a three pronged approach:
- Be aware of the dangers posed by snakes and take steps to avoid them
- As far as you are able, ‘proof’ your home and garden against snakes
- Know the symptoms of a snake bite and the appropriate treatment

The Bite
• The venom from Adders and Vipers is Cytotoxic
• Generally two puncture marks at the site of the bite.
• Bite causes instant pain with immediate swelling,
bruising and blistering.
• Symptoms can include nausea and dizziness.
• Immobilise the limb but do not restrict the blood flow.

 The venom from Mambas and Cobras is Neurotoxic
• Generally two puncture wounds at the site of the bite.
• Bite can feel more like a sting and there is little or no bruising and
swelling.
• Symptoms include feeling confused, dizziness, slurred speech,
difficulty swallowing and breathing.
• Immobilise the limb and do restrict blood flow between the bite andSNAKE BITE 3.jpg
the heart.
• Administer CPR until Medical help is available

 The venom from Boomslang and Vine snakes is Haemotoxic
• Sometimes puncture wounds can be seen at site of the bite.
• Bite is generally not very painful but within one hour copious
bleeding is likely to occur from the bite wound and any other
wounds cuts or scratches the victim may have.
• Symptoms can include a severe headache, nausea and vomiting.
• Whilst it is helpful to restrict the blood and lymphatic flow it is
important not to cause bruising as this could lead to subsequent
bleeding under the skin.
• If Venom is spat in to a person’s eyes use any liquid available,
preferably a neutral one such as water or milk – but anything at all
will do - and flush out the eye.

DO:
• Try to identify the snake; colour, size, shape of head, attacking method are
all useful.
• Loosen the Victim’s clothing and, if necessary, move them in to the shade.
• Keep the victim calm and still; movement will increase blood flow and
transport the venom to the heart much faster.
• Immobilise the limb but do NOT restrict blood flow unless you are certain
the bite was from a snake that delivers neurotoxic venom.
• Clean and dress the wound being careful not to apply pressure and cause
bruising.
• Be prepared to administer CPR if necessary.
• Get the victim to a hospital as soon as possible.

Do Not!! - Do Not!! - Do Not!!
• While there can be differences of opinion as to what we should do for snake bites
the consensus of opinion as to what not to do is reasonably consistent:
• Allow the victim to exercise or stress themselves.
• Cut the bite or attempt to suck the venom out.
• Give the victim anything to eat or drink especially alcohol.
• Use potassium permanganate crystals or solution near or on the bite wound.
• Use soapy water round the bite wound.
• Leave pressure bandages on too long.
• Leave the victim alone.
• Apply ice to the wound.
• Soak the affected limb in any solutions.

Most snakes cannot identify motionless objects,
so it is best to stand perfectly still if a snake is
encountered.
• Suitable protective clothing such as boots and
long trousers can prevent a serious snake bite

Scorpions

Are all scorpions poisonous?
• Yes!
• All species of scorpion are poisonous.
• If you are an insect

Scorpion Venom
• The venom from scorpions is neurotoxic.
• Some components in scorpion venom appear to
have no other function than to cause localized
pain or discomfort in the victim.

Southern Africa has an extremely low mortality rate
when it comes to scorpion envenomations.
• On average a dozen or so fatalities are recorded
annually.
• Thanks to the availability of good medical facilities and
antivenom, deaths in southern Africa are few indeed,
usually restricted to infants and the aged.
• These figures pale in comparison to countries such as
Mexico where on average 2000 people die annually asSCORPION THIN TAIL.jpg
a direct result of scorpion stings.

General Rule of Thumb
- More Poisonous: Thick tail /
Small Pinchers

Less poisonous: Thin tail / Large
Pinchers

Symptoms of a scorpion sting
• Most scorpions are not dangerous to humans.
• There are, however, a few species, in the family
Buthidae (THICK TAILS), that can be
dangerous to humans.

Common symptoms of a scorpion sting:
• pain, tingling or burning sensation at the sting
site
• sweating, nausea and vomiting
• numbness
• muscle twitchingSCORPION THICK TAIL.jpg
• abnormal neck, eye and head
movements/twitching
• heart palpitations
• breathing difficulties may occur

More severe reactions include:
• blurring of consciousness
• unconsciousness
• convulsions
• fall in blood pressure
• shock
• the threat of death

Local treatment:
1. Use ice bags to reduce pain and to slow the absorption
of venom via vasoconstriction. This is most effective
during the first 2 hours following the sting.
2. Immobilize the affected part in a functional position
below the level of the heart to delay venom absorption.
3. Calm the patient to lower the heart rate and blood
pressure, thus limiting the spread of the venom.

4. Apply a topical or local anaesthetic agent to the
wound to decrease sensation of tingling,
pricking, or numbness of the skin.
5. Administer local wound care and topical
antibiotic to the wound.
6. Seek medical attention immediately.

 SPIDERS

Of the 35,000 species of spiders described worldwide,
only a handful are considered to be dangerous and only
27 are known to have caused human fatalities.
• In Southern Africa there are 5 species of dangerous
spiders whose bite might be fatal and or of medical
importance.
• The venom of the medically important spiders can be
divided into those that have neurotoxic (affects the
central nervous system) or cytotoxic (affects the tissue
around the bite site) venom.

Black button spiders
• The bite of a black button spider is usually very painful.BLACK BUTTON SPIDER.jpg
• Causes profuse sweating, raised blood pressure and
restlessness and generalised muscle pain and cramps,
stiffness of the stomach muscles, limb pain especially
legs, weakness in legs.
• Although no documented records exist of fatality due to
button spider bites, they have the potential to cause
severe symptoms with small children and elderly people
being at greatest risk.

In the case of black
button envenomation the
patient must be
hospitalized and vital
functions monitored for
up to 24 hours.

Brown button spidersBROWN BUTTON SPIDER.jpg
• The symptoms occurring after a bite from one of the
brown buttons are milder and tend to be restricted to the
bite site
• Characterized by a local burning sensation, which may
spread to the surrounding tissue and lymph nodes.
• The bite site is more evident and often seen as a red
macular spot or blanched area surrounded by a
localised rash.
• The condition usually clears up within a day or two.

Six Eyed Sand (Crab) Spider
• Fast moving spider that only lives in the South African
desert.CRAB SPIDER.jpg
• It is a light or reddish brown and sometimes
yellowish colored spider with a body of about ½ an
inch long and when measure to include its legs is
about 2 inches in length.
• Its legs are cambered in slightly like that of a crab.
• Relatives of this spider is the Recluse / Violen Spider.

Toxicology studies have demonstrated that the
venom is particularly potent, with a powerful
cytotoxic / neurotoxic effect.
• Causing blood vessel leakage, thinning of the
blood and tissue destruction.SAC SPIDER.jpg

Sac Spider
• Wandering predators that built silken retreats, or
sacs, usually on plants, between leaves, under
bark or under rocks.
• Venom: Cytotoxic
• Bite: Not painful
• Require Tetanus toxoid booster

Violen / Recluse Spider
• Distributed nearly worldwide in warmer areas,
and are often known as Recluse spiders.RECLUSE SPIDER.jpg
• Are usually brownish with a darker brown
characteristic violin marking on the
cephalothorax.

Has potent tissue-destroying venoms, which is
otherwise found only in a few pathogenic bacteria.
• This venom is highly necrotic in effect, capable of
causing lesions (open sores) as large as a bottle cap.
• The wounds take a long time to heal and may require
skin grafts. If these open wounds become infected there
are often serious consequences. Rarely, the venom is
carried by the blood stream to internal organs causing
systemic effects.

Spider Bite Symptoms
• Determining whether a victim has been bitten byspinnekopbyt 2.jpg
a spider may be impossible.
• Studies of brown recluse spiders have shown
that victims seek treatment more than three
days after their bites, making it nearly
impossible to identify the culprit.
• Black widow bites are often identified only by
symptoms of its venom, without any visible local
bite.

Local reactions to bites from all manner of toxic
bugs look the same:
• redness
• swelling
• itching
• pain

Victims should be concerned when a local reaction continues to getSPINNEKOPBYT 3.jpg
worse for more than 24 hours.
• Look for redness spreading away from the bite, drainage from the
bite, increase in pain, numbness/tingling, or a discoloration around
the bite that looks like a halo or bullseye.
• Victims should also call a doctor if they are not up to date on their
tetanus vaccinations.
• Anaphylaxis (allergic reaction) is always the biggest concern with
any type of bug bite.
• If the victim exhibits any signs of allergic reaction or anaphylaxis
shortly after a bug bite, seek medical attention immediately.


Comments(0)
2013-07-24 12:00:00 AM

How is it made?

  •  Anhydrous nitrate
  • Ephedrine
  • Red Phosphorous
  • Lithium
  • Antifreeze
  • Latern fuel

    create tik.png

Methods of Use:

drug usag

drug usage

Stages of Tik Use:

  • Rush (20-40min)
  • High (3 days)
  • Binge
  • Crash

Short Term Effects:

  • anxiousness and nervousness
  • incessant talking
  • extreme moodiness and irritability
  • purposeless, repititious behaviour, such as picking at skin or pulling out hair
  • sleep disturbances
  • false sense of confidence and power; aggressive or violent behaviour

Dialuted Pupils: Stimulant Intoxication

 Effects of Meth: Diluted Pupils

Longer term signs of abuse:

  • disinterest in previously enjoyed activities; and severe depression
  • dry mouth, sores in and around the mouth
  • weight loss
  • irratability, temper outbursts, aggression

Effects of Tik Abuse

tik side effects

Dental problems caused by Meth Abscesses caused by Cranking (Injecting tik intravenously) Meth Needle Marks

What are the medical complications?

  • rapid heart rate, irregular hearbeat,
  • increased blood pressure
  • convulsions
  • damaged blood vessels and skin abscesses
  • acute lead poisoning
  • 50% of the dopamine producing cells in the brain can be damaged

Tik psychosis:

  • intense paranoia
  • confusion, anxiety
  • visual and auditory hallucinations
  • out-of-control rages
  • delusions

How long does tik stay in the system?

  • Approximately 5 days

Realities to prepare for if you're dealing with Tik in your home:

  • Tik cravings are long lasting and repetitive
  • Small valuables start disappearing
  • As addiction progresses, aggression will set in
  • Use of downers may follow
meth side effects

The following poem was written by a young girl who was in jail for
drug charges, and was addicted to crystal meth (TIC). She wrote
this while in jail. As you will soon read, she fully grasped the
horrors of the drug, as she tells in this simple, yet profound poem.
She was released from jail, but true to her story, the drug owned
her:

My Name is Tik:
I destroy homes, I tear families apart,
take your children, and that's just the start.
I'm more costly than diamonds, more precious than gold,
The sorrow I bring is a sight to behold.

If you need me, remember! I'm easily found,
I live all around you – in schools and in town.
I live with the rich; I live with the poor,
I live down the street, and maybe next door.

I'm made in a lab, but not like you think,
I can be made under the kitchen sink.
In your child's closet, and even in the woods,
If this scares you to death, well it certainly should.

I have many names, but there's one you know best,
I'm sure you've heard of me, my name is crystal meth.
My power is awesome; try me you'll see,
But if you do, you may never break free.

Just try me once and I might let you go,
But try me twice, and I'll own your soul.
When I possess you, you'll steal and you'll lie,
You do what you have to -- just to get high.
The crimes you'll commit for my narcotic charms
Will be worth the pleasure you'll feel in your arms,
(your lungs, and your nose).

You'll lie to your mother; you'll steal from your dad,
When you see their tears, you should feel sad.

But you'll forget your morals and how you were raised,
I'll be your conscience, I'll teach you my ways.

I take kids from parents, and parents from kids,
I turn people from God, and separate friends.
I'll take everything from you, your looks and your pride,
I'll be with you always -- right by your side.

You'll give up everything - your family, your home,
Your friends, your money, then you'll be alone.
I'll take and take, till you have nothing more to give,
When I'm finished with you, you'll be lucky to live.

If you try me be warned - this is no game,
If given the chance, I'll drive you insane.
I'll ravish your body, I'll control your mind,
I'll own you completely; your soul will be mine.

The nightmares I'll give you while lying in bed,
The voices you'll hear, from inside your head.

The sweats, the shakes, the visions you'll see,
I want you to know, these are all gifts from me.

But then it's too late, and you'll know in your heart, That you are
mine, and we shall not part.

You'll regret that you tried me, they always do,
But you came to me, not I to you.

You knew this is would happen, many times you were told,
But you challenged my power, and chose to be bold.

You could have said no, and just walked away,
If you could live that day over, now what would you say?

I'll be your master; you will be my slave,
I'll even go with you, when you go to your grave.

Now that you have met me, what will you do?
Will you try me or not? It's all up to you.

I can bring you more misery than words can tell,
Come take my hand, let me lead you to hell.


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2013-07-14 12:00:00 AM

Na ses jaar se onderhandelinge en miljoene rande  se hofsake tussen die Departement van Gesondheid en die aptekersbedryf, is die prysstruktuur van medisyne uiteindelik gefinaliseer toe dit op 19 November 2010 in die staatskoerant gepubliseer is.

The Single Exit Price (SEP) which comes from the manufacturer, has to be made public to the Department of Health, which means that all retail outlets are supposed to pay the same price for their medication (PURCHASE PRICE = SEP). The price structure is based on the quantity of the SEP.

Below is a summary of what the structure looks like:
1. If the SEP is below R75.00, 46% + VAT of the SEP and a rand value of R6.00 + VAT may be added.
2. If the SEP is between R75.00 and R200.00, 33% + VAT of the SEP and a rand value of R15.75 + VAT may be added.
3. If the SEP is between R200.00 and R699.99, 15% of the SEP and a rand value of R51.00 + VAT may be added.
4. If the SEP is more than R700.00, 5% of the SEP and a rand value of R121.00 + VAT may be added.

*The percentage must be added before the rand value is added.

Wat beteken dit in die praktyk?

1.     Goedkoper medikasie word duurder.
2.     Duur medikasie word goedkoper.

Die goedkoper medikasie subsidieer met ander woorde die duur medikasie. Mense wat daarop staatgemaak het dat hulle met ‘n staatspensioen of ‘n tuinwerker-salaris iets goedkoop gaan kry vir bv. griep en verkoue,  gaan dus meer opdok vir medisyne. Die kliënt wat in die verlede R3141.54 betaal het vir sy hormooninspuiting, betaal nou baie minder (R1738.24) daarvoor.

Ek dink nie die stelsel is goed deurdink nie. In die verlede (8 jaar terug), kon ons as aptekers beding vir ‘n goeie prys op bv. hoes, verkoue, pyn en ander oor die toonbank medikasie.Die prysvoordeel is in die verlede aan die kliënt deurgegee. Hierdie onderhandelings voorreg is ons nou ontneem in die sin van die SEP wat ononderhandelbaar is. (Vat wat jy kry teen die prys wat ons bied).

Wat beteken dit vir die apteek?

Omdat daar ‘n mengsel van produkte teen verskillende SEP’s uitgegee word, moet daar na die hele koek gekyk word. ‘n Voorlopige analise in ons apteek wys dat ons bruto wins op medikasie met ongeveer 3% sal afneem.

Die skrikwekkendste van hierdie stelsel is dat die mediese fondse oor die algemeen nie bereid is om volgens hierdie tariefstruktuur te betaal nie. Dit beteken dat daar steeds bybetalings kan wees. Sommige van die mediese skemas betaal minder uit as die kosprys (SEP). Sien dit in hierdie lig – agt jaar gelede was jou skema bereid om teen enigiets van tussen “Cost” plus 30% tot “Cost” plus 50% te betaal. With the announcement of the Minister of Health six years ago that medication may not cost more than the SEP + 26% up to a maximum of SEP + R26.00, the medical schemes embraced this structure and saved millions due to reduced payouts. At the same time, premiums increased yearly between 9% and sometimes up to 15%. Makes you wonder who made money?

Soms wonder ek of regulering ‘n goeie ding is. Sou dit nie beter gewees het om dit te los soos dit was en en markkragte en dienslewering te los om die mark te dikteer nie?


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Etiese farmaseutiese firmas spandeer groot bedrae geld om medisyne na te vors en te ontwikkel. Om hulself tydens die navorsings- en ontwikkelingfase van 'n produk te beskerm, registreer hulle 'n patent wat vir 20 jaar beskerming bied teen ander maatskappye wat op dieselfde produk navorsing en ontwikkeling wil doen. Indien die navorsing en ontwikkeling bv. 15 jaar duur, het die firma met ander woorde 5 jaar oor om sy koste te verhaal en wins te maak uit die finale produk.
 
After 20 years, this patent right expires. Any other pharmaceutical company can now manufacture this product. The "receipe" is taken and the product is introduced into the market as a generic equivalent at a much lower price. As soon as the cheaper generic equivalent becomes available, most medical aids refuse to pay for the original, more expensive product. Pharmacists are forced to dispense the cheaper generic product, unless the member (you) is willing to pay in the difference between the two products.
 
Not all generic products are bad products and not all generic products are good either. Law however, protects the consumer in the sense that specific criteria is set for the generic replacement of medicine. Hierdie wet bepaal dat die vervangende produk dieselfde bestanddeel moet bevat, dieselfde doseervorm en dieselfde biobeskikbaarheid. So is Natriumdiklofenak en Kaliumdiklofenak nie dieselfde bestanddeel nie en daarvoor nie generiese ekwivalente nie. 'n Bruistablet en 'n sluktablet is verskillende doseervorme en daarom kan dit mekaar nie vervang nie. Biobeskikbaarheid omskryf die tempo waarteen geneesmiddels geabsorbeer word en hoe vinnig die geneesmiddel sekere bloedvlakke bereik.
 
Dit is dus verkeerd, en jou mediese fonds is buite die wet, as hy in eie belang jou cholesterol medikasie met 'n ander vervang, bv. Crestor met Simvastatin. Dit kan slegs so vervang word as die geneesheer sy toestemming gegee het.
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