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2016-09-13 10:38:43 AM

KROEP / CROUP

Wat is kroep?

Kroep is ‘n infeksie van die boonste lugweg wat asemhalings-probleme en ‘n kenmerkende blaffende hoes veroorsaak. Kroep is algemeen in kinders tussen 6 maande en 3 jaar oud. By die meeste kinders verdwyn kroep soos wat die kind ouer word. Dit is belangrik om jou kind na jou huisdokter te neem indien die simptome vir langer as sewe dae aanhou.

 

What causes croup?

Croup is usually caused by a virus infection that your child may contract by breathing infected respiratory droplets coughed or sneezed into the air. If your child touches a surface contaminated by these droplets and then touches his or her eyes, nose or mouth, an infection may follow.

 

Wat is die simptome van kroep? 

Kroep begin dikwels as ‘n tipiese verkoue met ‘n loopneus en ‘n gevoel van kongestie (toe bors). ‘n Hoes wat soos ‘n harde blaf sal klink, begin na ‘n paar dae ontwikkel en die stem word hees. Jou kind mag ‘n “high pitched breathing” (hierdie word genoem "stridor") ontwikkel. Dit is ook algemeen om 'n koors te ontwikkel. Kroep vererger gewoontlik in die nag asook wanneer die kind huil of ontsteld is. Kroep simptome duur gewoontlik vir drie tot vyf dae.

 

Jy moet onmiddellik mediese hulp ontbied                            You should seek immediate medical

as jou kind:                                                                                attention if your child:

 

- ‘n "High Pitched" in en uitasemhaling het ("stridor")              - Has noisy, high-pitched breathing 

                                                                                            (“stridor”) both when inhaling and exhaling

- Begin kwyl of sukkel om te sluk                                          - Begins drooling or has trouble swallowing

- Kom angstig en ontsteld of moeg en traag voor                    - Seems anxious and agitated or fatigued

                                                                                             and lethargic

- Sukkel om asem te haal of haal vinniger as gewoonlik asem    - Struggles to breathe or breathes faster

                                                                                               than usual

- Indien die vel romdom die neus, mond of naels grys              - Develops blue or grayish skin around the

of blou verkleur (“sianose”)                                                       nose, mouth or fingernails (“cyanosis”)

 

 

BEHANDELING VAN KROEP

Indien die simptome langer as sewe dae voortduur is dit belangrik om jou kind na die geneesheer te neem. Afhangende van die Dokter se diagnose is daar verskillende produkte om kroep mee te behandel.

 

 


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2016-02-23 11:02:51 AM

INSOMNIA/SLAPELOOSHEID

What is insomnia?

Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterised by difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep, DESPITE adequate time and opportunity to do so. This may lead to daytime functional impairment. Although insomnia affects adults and children, it is more common in adults and its frequency increases with age.

TYPES OF INSOMNIA

  • PRIMARY INSOMNIA – This indicates that a patient is experiencing sleep problems that are not directly associated with any health condition or problem. This type of insomnia is acute or chronic (long lasting).

  • SECONDARY INSOMNIA – This is normally caused by another health problem, pain, medication or a substance being used e.g. alcohol.

Primary insomnia is a sleep disorder and it is very difficult to pinpoint the cause. Factors such as life changes, major stress or emotional stress, trigger primary insomnia. In comparison to this, secondary insomnia is a symptom or side-effect of another problem, e.g. emotional, neurological or medical in origin. Causes for secondary insomnia include thyroid conditions, pain, asthma, depression and certain medications.

EENVOUDIGE SLAAPMETODES

Daar is heelwat eenvoudige metodes om slaappatrone te verbeter, onder andere:

  • Slaap soveel as moontlik sodat jy uitgerus voel, maar moenie te veel slaap nie.

  • Handhaaf ‘n gereelde slaappatroon. Dit beteken om elke aand dieselfde tyd te gaan slaap en om elke oggend dieselfde tyd op te staan.

  • Probeer om nie deur die dag te slaap nie.

  • Vermy kafeïene smiddae en saans.

  • Moenie alkohol drink net voordat jy gaan slaap nie.

  • Moenie rook nie, VERAL nie saans nie.

  • Maak seker dat die kamer donker en stil is en nie te warm of koud nie.

  • Moenie honger gaan slaap nie, maar moet ook nie ‘n groot maaltyd eet net voordat jy bed toe gaan nie.

  • Probeer om van stres of angstigheid voor slapenstyd ontslae te raak.

  • Oefen gereeld, maar nie binne vier ure voor jy gaan slaap nie.

  • Moenie jou bed vir enigiets anders as slaap gebruik nie.

OOR-DIE-TOONBANK MEDIKASIE/OVER-THE-COUNTER MEDICINES

ANTIHISTAMINE WAT JOU VAAK/LOMERIG MAAK

Die eerste generasie tipe antihistamine veroorsaak sedasie of slaperigheid. Sederende anti-histamine is op die kort termyn baie effektief vir die behandeling van tydelike slapeloosheid by volwassenes en kinders ouer as 12 jaar. Voorbeelde sluit in difenhidramien en doxylamine.

MELATONIN

Melatonin is a hormone in the body that helps to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. It causes drowsiness, lowers the body temperature and slows metabolic functions. Darkness stimulates melatonin secretion whilst it (the secretion) is inhibited by exposure to natural sunlight. The night-time rise in the level of melatonin promotes sleep onset and maintains restful sleep.

If the natural melatonin cycle is altered, it affects sleep quality. For example, being exposed to bright lights in the evening, or too little light during the day, can disrupt the body’s melatonin secretion. This secretion is also influenced by age and certain medications such as benzodiazepines, corticosteroids or beta blockers that decrease melatonin secretion, or opioids and adrenergic compounds which stimulate it.

By taking melatonin as a medicine, it will improve the sleep onset, but it does not assist with sleep duration. There are complementary products available that contain melatonin, but their efficacy and safety in the management of insomnia still require further investigation. Preparations containing melatonin cause side-effects such as headaches, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach cramps, nausea and hypotension. Patients with chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and seizure disorders, should consult a doctor before taking melatonin.

PLEASE TAKE NOTE:  All products containing melatonin are in the process of being re-scheduled and will only be available on prescription.

Slapeloosheid het baie oorsake. Deur die onderliggende toestande the behandel, word die probleem verlig. Die nakoming van goeie slaapgewoontes help in die voorkoming van slapeloosheid. Tydelike slapeloosheid kan beheer word deur middel van sederende anti-histamine. Pasiënte wat aan aanhoudende slapeloosheid ly of aan slapeloosheid wat hul daaglikse funksionering affekteer, moet na ‘n geneesheer verwys word.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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2015-08-05 12:58:57 PM

GENITALE HERPES/GENITAL HERPES

When awareness of genital Herpes was first raised in the 1970’s, it was a condition considered incurable, untreatable and therefore something terrible. Nowadays, genital Herpes is manageable and sufferers can lead a normal and happy life.

HOW DOES ONE GET GENITAL HERPES

Genital Herpes is spread via direct skin-to-skin contact. Normally, genital Herpes is caused by the HSV-2 form of the Herpes simplex virus, but a person with a fever blister virus can cause genital Herpes if there is mouth contact with the genitals.

Normally, symptoms appear 2-20 days after the infection has been contracted. This is usually the worst stage, because the body has not yet had time to develop any anti-bodies. Pain, discomfort in the genital area and fever, are typical symptoms.

In some instances, the first outburst can be so mild that it actually goes by unnoticed. Some people have genital Herpes and don’t even know it. Sometimes, when a second outburst occurs years later, shock and confusion may be experienced by partners, which will definitely have an impact on the relationship.

WAT IS DIE SIMPTOME VAN ‘N HERHALING?

  • Gejeuk, prikkelgevoel, branderigheid of ander pyn in die geïnfekteerde area.
  • Klein, rooi knoppies verskyn en verander in pynlike blasies.
  • Blasies maak ‘n kors en genesing begin.
  • Algehele genesing kom gewoonlik na 10 dae vanaf die eerste simptome, voor.

WAT VEROORSAAK UITBARSTINGS?

Niemand weet werklik hoekom genitale Herpes weer terugkom nie, maar ‘n paar faktore mag verantwoordelik wees soos bv.:

  • Stres/Angs
  • Menstruasie
  • ‘n Oormaat alkohol
  • Afgematheid (Tiredness)
  • Ander infeksies van die geslagsdele
  • Soms kan wrywing teen of beskadiging van die vel, ‘n uitbarsting veroorsaak.

Die herhaling en hewigheid van ‘n uitbarsting verskil van persoon tot persoon. Met tyd behoort uitbarstings minder dikwels voor te kom en ook minder fel te wees.

WANNEER IS GENITALE HERPES AANSTEEKLIK?

Genitale Herpes is aansteeklik vanaf die oomblik dat die eerste simptome verskyn (gejeuk, prikkelgevoel, ens.) totdat die area VOLKOME genees het. Indien jy seksuele kontak gedurende hierdie tyd VERMY, is dit onwaarskynlik dat jy genitale Herpes sal opdoen.

HOE OM VERSPREIDING VAN DIE INFEKSIE TE VOORKOM

  • Vermy seksuele kontak gedurende aansteeklike periodes.
  • Was hande nadat daar aan seertjies geraak is of medisinale room aangewend is.
  • Vermy enige aanraking aan jou oë hetsy met jou hande of ‘n handdoek, omdat jou oë baie vatbaar is vir kruisinfeksie.

HOW TO CONTROL GENITAL HERPES

Because genital Herpes can be a constant source of worry, it is important that it is kept under control. The first step is to get a confirmed diagnosis from your doctor who will then prescribe treatment. Virucidal treatment that will limit the pain and duration of another episode, is available. Should repeats of the infection occur regularly, treatment under supervision of your doctor, should take place on an ongoing basis.

 


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2015-05-14 09:39:51 AM

KOORSBLARE/FEVER BLISTERS

Koorsblare is seertjies op die lippe wat veroorsaak word deur die HSV-1 vorm van die Herpes simplex virus.

HOE WORD KOORSBLARE VERSPREI?

Koorsblare word veroorsaak deur direkte kontak met ‘n lyer en die mees algemene manier waarop dit versprei word, is deur soen. Dit kan ook oorgedra word as eet-of drinkgerei met ‘n aangetaste persoon gedeel word.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEVER BLISTERS

  • A short period of itchiness, tingling numbness or burning sensation of the lips. If it is treated at this stage, the severe outburst can decrease significantly.
  • The area becomes red and swollen.
  • A blister forms – this is when the sore is at its most painful.
  • The blister dries out and forms a scab.
  • Eventually the scab separates from the sore.
  • Total healing.
  • Fever blisters will normally heal within 7-10 days.

HOEKOM KOM KOORSBLARE WEER TERUG?

Na die aanvanklike infeksie, leef die Herpesvirus permanent in die liggaam. Meeste van die tyd bly die virus onakftief en skadeloos in geïnfekteerde senuselle. Met die hervoorkoms van koorsblare, beweeg die virus uit die senuweesel na die oppervlak van die vel waar dit vermeerder en ‘n letsel vorm wat ons ‘n koorsblaar noem. Hierdie seerplek (koorsseer/koorsblaar), sal na ongeveer 7-10 dae verdwyn en laat nie ‘n permanente letsel nie.

WAT GEE AANLEIDING TOT KOORSBLARE?

Normaalweg is dit faktore wat die liggaam se natuurlike weerstand verlaag soos bv.

  • ‘n Tekort aan slaap
  • Emosionele stres
  • Swak voeding
  • Koors
  • Menstruasie
  • Te veel blootstelling aan wind, son of koue

 

HOW TO PREVENT THE SPREADING OF THE INFECTION

  • Wash your hands directly after you touched the sores or applied medicinal cream.
  • After touching the sores, avoid touching your eyes with your hands or a towel. Eyes are especially susceptible to cross-infections.
  • Avoid kissing anybody when you have a fever blister, especially babies and small children.
  • Don’t scratch the sores, otherwise a secondary infection might occur.
  • If the blister bursts open, keep it clean with antiseptics.
  • Don’t share your eating utensils, drinking glasses or washing.

WAT KAN JY OMTRENT ‘N KOORSBLAAR DOEN?

As jy aan koorsblare ly, raadpleeg jou apteker of dokter. Hy of sy sal ‘n viruswerende room voorskryf wat die uitbarsting asook die graad van pyn en ongerief, kan verminder. ONTHOU: Die viruswerende room werk die effektiefste as dit aangewend word VOOR die koorsblaar ontwikkel. Dit is wanneer jy die eerste teken van ‘n prikkel gevoel ervaar. Dit beteken dat daar onmiddellik met behandeling begin moet word.

LET WEL: ANTIBIOTIKA GAAN NIKS HELP VIR ‘N KOORSBLAAR NIE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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2015-03-11 01:11:12 PM

Menstrual pain (dysmenorreah), is one of the most common reasons why women seek assistance from their pharmacist or doctor. Some studies estimate that as many as 90% of younger women suffer from severe period pain which often results in absence from school or work.

CAUSE

Once the menstrual cycle starts, the increased production of hormones (prostaglandins) is the reason for the throbbing or cramping pains in the lower abdomen, as it triggers the muscles in the uterus to contract. Women who have high levels of prostaglandins experience more intense contractions and thus more pain.

Some of the symptoms include lower belly pain, lower back pain, headaches, bloating, irritability, fatigue, dizziness and nausea. In severe cases, some women suffer from vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation.

PREVENTION

This condition can be eased by the following:

  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Reducing stress
  • Avoiding alcohol, tobacco, salt and caffeine
  • Exercise often
  • Drink lots of water to prevent dehydration

BEHANDELING

  • Anti-inflammatoriese middels soos ibuprofen of aspirien help vir die pyn en ongemak.
  • Aanvullers soos kalsium, vitamien D, E, B-1, B-6 en magnesium kan die intensiteit van die dismenoreë verlig.
  • Hormoon behandeling. Mondelinge voorbehoedmiddels bevat hormone wat ovulasie verhoed en ook die pynlikheid van menstruele krampe verminder.
  • Oefening.
  • Massering rondom die maag area mag help om pyn te verminder.
  • Hitte – ‘n warm waterbottel teen die lae rug of maag sal bloedtoevoer verbeter.
  • Warm bad of stort.
  • Verminder stres deur middel van ontspanningstegnieke soos joga of meditasie.
  • Drink warm vloeistowwe.
  • Eet ligte, maar gereelde maaltye.

MITES

  1. Wanneer jy menstrueer en in die see swem, sal jy deur haaie geeët word.

Nog nooit in die geskiedenis was daar al ooit gedokumenteerde bewyse dat haaie iemand aanval wat menstrueer nie.

  1. Jy moenie hare was tydens menstruasie nie.

Daar is geen rede om jou higiëne te verander tydens jou siklus nie. Inteendeel, ‘n warm bad of stort help om skoon te bly en sommige vroue beweer dat dit ook help vir die krampe.

  1. Bedrus is ‘n MOET tydens jou siklus.

Alhoewel dit belangrik is om genoeg slaap te kry, is dit belangriker om meer oefening te kry. Dit verlig die krampe en is ook baie goed vir jou gemoedstoestand.

  1. Warm water verhoog die menstruasie vloei.

Die enigste ding wat die vloei kan verander is jou liggaam self, so jy kan nie die vloei ligter of swaarder maak nie. ‘n Warm bad of stort kan help om die krampe te verlig.

  1. Jy kan nie swanger raak tydens jou siklus nie.

Hierdie mite is van alle waarheid ontbloot. Jy KAN swanger raak, aangesien spermselle binne-in jou tussen 3-5 dae kan leef. Ovulasie kan gedurende of na die bloeifase plaasvind. Die veiligste is om nie jou voorbehoedmiddel oor te slaan nie.

  1. Irregular periods are bad for your reproductive health.

Once you’ve missed your period, talk to your pharmacist or doctor. It can take from 6 months to a year to become regular after the first time you get your period. Some women are never regular, as factors such as stress, illness and intense exercise can mess with your cycle.

  1. You shouldn’t use a tampon until you’re old enough.

Not true. It is important though to read the instructions and warnings and make sure that you use it correctly. Tampons should not cause any pain or discomfort.

  1. Menstrual cycles are 28 days.

This is only an average as it varies from woman to woman. Your body will tell you what your cycle is.

  1. You can shorten or delay a period.

Don’t fight your body’s natural menstrual cycle. By doing this, it could potentially cause other health problems.

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2014-11-03 02:34:49 PM

Herewith some interesting facts regarding malaria and how to protect yourself against it.

Many South Africans are not vigilant in protecting themselves from malaria when travelling to affected areas. According to doctors and medical advisors, this is a huge mistake.

In January 2012, 2 267 cases were reported in South Africa alone and 16 of these cases resulted in death. Studies conducted by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation in Seattle, Washington in the USA, indicate that malaria kills approximately 1.2 million people PER YEAR.

Alhoewel die meeste mense daarvan bewus is dat malaria 'n baie ernstige siekte is, is daar baie persone wat verkeerdelik glo dat dit voldoende is om voorkomende medikasie te neem. Die teendeel is egter waar, nie een van die voorkomende medikasies wat beskikbaar is, bied algehele beskerming teen malaria nie. (Voorbeelde hiervan is doxycycline, meflokien, atovaquone/proguanil.)

Voorkomende medikasie verskaf wel 'n groote mate van beskerming en kan heel moontlik jou lewe red. Dit is belangrik dat hierdie medikasie geneem word indien jy 'n malaria gebied besoek. Sou jy 'n malaria gebied besoek het en jy toon na jou terugkeer griepsimptome, moet dit onmiddellik as moontlike malaria gesien word en mediese raad moet dringend verkry word. Dit vereis dat dringende bloedtoetse dadelik gedoen word. (Dit geld ook as hierdie simptome vir die volgende 3-6 maande aanhou).

WAARHEDE OOR MALARIA/TRUTHS ABOUT MALARIA

  • Malaria kan baie ernstig wees en moet betyds gediagnoseer word.
  • Preventive medication will almost certainly help to reduce the severity of the symptoms. When travelling to a malaria area, it is important to take the prescribed medication that is right for you.
  • The best way to prevent malaria is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes in the first place. The malaria mosquito is a dusk to dawn feeder. Al gebruik jy voorkomende medikasie, is dit belangrik om gedurende hierdie tye langmouhemde en langbroeke te dra. Gebruik muskietweerders wat diethyltoluamide bevat, op al die blootgestelde dele van die liggaam bv. arms, bene, gesig, ore ens. Indien moontlik, slaap onder 'n muskietnet.

 

MALARIA MYTHS/MALARIA MITES

  • It is a myth that preventive medication does not provide protection against the development of cerebral malaria.
  • Dit is onwaar dat voorkomende medikasie die diagnose van malaria moeiliker maak.

MALARIA VACCINE ON THE HORIZON

Distribution of mosquito nets has led to some reduction in malaria cases in children of indigenous populations in Africa's malaria areas. There is new hope on the horizon in the fight against malaria. A trial malaria vaccine called RTS,S has been developed. The first results indicate a 55% redcution in malaria cases in children from 5 months - 17 months, over a period of one year. Daar is sprake dat hierdie entstof moontlik reg kan wees vir verspreiding gedurende 2015. Hierdie entstof sal beslis 'n beduidende impak maak om die voorvalle van malaria in Afrika te verminder.


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2014-09-04 12:31:30 PM

SEASONAL ALLERGIES

Spring means budding flowers, new leaves on trees and greener grass – and if you have any seasonal allergies, a streaming nose and sneezing. Springtime allergies, also known as hay fever and allergic rhinitis, can make sufferers want to hide indoors, but a better understanding of the problem and timely intervention may help to put a spring back into their step.

WHAT ARE SEASONAL ALLERGIES?

Seasonal allergies are allergic reactions to triggers that are present for only part of the year. These are typically a reaction to pollen from flowers, trees and grasses that bloom or seed at a specific time of the year. Perennial allergies are present all year round and triggers may include pet dander (hair) and house dust mites. Spores from moulds may cause seasonal or perennial allergies.

Seasonal allergies are usually at their worst in spring and autumn when certain trees and grasses pollinate. When exactly the season starts, depends on the local climate and tree types.

OORSAKE

Die stuifmeel in die lug van verskeie seisoenale plante, dring die liggaam deur die oë, neus of keel binne en by sommige sensitiewe individue, veroorsaak dit ‘n allergiese reaksie. By verskeie mense sal die immuunstelsel nie op ligte stowwe soos stuifmeel reageer nie. By persone wat aan allergieë lei, beskou die liggaam se verdedigingsmeganisme hierdie allergene as aansteeklike of skadelike agente. Dit veroorsaak dat histamine en ander chemikalieë vrygestel word wat inflammasie en ander tipiese simptome van allergieë te voorskyn bring.

Allergiese simptome begin vyf tot tien minute na blootstelling en neem gewoonlik binne ‘n uur af. Dit mag egter twee tot vier ure later weer terugkeer. Stuifmeel wat deur die wind versprei word, is die mees algemene oorsaak van seisoenale allergieë. Helder, gekleurde blomme wat op insekte soos bye staatmaak om stuifmeel na ander blomme oor te dra, veroorsaak gewoonlik nie seisoenale allergieë nie, omdat die stuifmeel in hierdie blomme nie in die lug teenwoordig is nie.

Die stuifmeel van gras en bome kan ver afstande deur die lug reis. Die stuifmeelvlakke kan van dag tot dag wissel en is geneig om van vroeg-tot die middeloggend, op sy hoogste te wees.

SIMPTOME

Allergieë het ‘n verskeidenheid simptome wat onder andere die volgende insluit:

  • Nies

  • Loop neus

  • Kongestie (toe neus)

  • Jeukerige, waterige rooi oë

  • Krapperige keel

  • Droë hoes

  • Verswakte reuk- en proesensasie

  • Post-nasale drip

  • Slaapversteuring

Jeukerige, waterige oë is dikwels die eerste teken dat die hooikoorsseisoen begin het en word redelik vinnig deur niesbuie en nasale simptome, gevolg. Sommige persone ervaar hoofpyn, kongestie en niesbuie. Persone wat allergiese asma het, mag verslegtende asmatiese simptome ervaar. Allergieë kan slaappatrone versteur en geïrriteerdheid en lomerigheid deur die dag veroorsaak. Allergiese konjunktivitis, ‘n toestand waar die binneste ooglede en wit van die oë geaffekteer word, mag ook voorkom.

BEHANDELING

Verskeie produkte is beskikbaar om die simptome van seisoenale allergieë te verlig. Dit sluit onder andere antihistamine en dekongestante in.

 

COMPARISON OF ALLERGIC AND COLD SYMPTOMS

 

ALLERGY

COLDS

OCCURRENCE

Symptoms occur all at once or close together

Symptoms often occur one at a time: sneezing, then runny nose and then congestion

DURATION

Continue for entire duration of allergen exposure

Generally seven to ten days

MUCUS

Usually a clear, thin, watery discharge

May become infected, leading to thick, green or yellow nasal discharge

SNEEZING

Common, including multiple sneezes

Less common

TIME OF YEAR

Common when certain plants are in bloom: spring through autumn

More common in winter

FEVER

Not usually associated with a fever

May be present

 

ALLERGEN AVOIDANCE

Most seasonal allergens cannot be avoided completely, but exposure to pollen may be minimised by the following:

  • Keep windows closed to prevent the wind from blowing pollen into your house.

  • Minimise early morning activities when the pollen levels are high.

  • When travelling, keep car windows closed.

  • Stay indoors when the pollen count is expected to be high.

  • Avoid mowing the lawn and freshly cut grass.

  • Where possible, tumble dry bedding and clothing, as pollen may collect on laundry that is hung outside.

  • Wear a dust mask when performing outdoor chores.

CONCLUSION

Allergies that are caused by pollen and other seasonal allergens, may be uncomfortable and cause disruption in daily activities. Avoidance of the allergens (where possible) and treatment with suitable medication can assist sufferers and enable them to enjoy life.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Comments(0)
2014-06-24 09:25:18 AM

 

 

 

1. Remove the cover of the mouth piece and shake inhaler well.

2. Hold inhaler as illustrated. Should you not be able to hold the inhaler in one hand, hold the inhaler with both hands with both forefingers on the top of the canister and both thumbs under the mouthpiece.

3. Take a deep breath and exhale fully until no more air can be expelled from the lungs. Place inhaler well into the mouth on top of the tongue whilst the lips are kept tightly around the mouthpiece. While pressing

down on the canister, inhale deeply.

4. Relax the pressure on the metal canister.

5. Verwyder die mondstuk van die mond terwyl u vir 'n paar sekondes u asem ophou en blaas dan stadig die asem uit.

6. Wag ten minste een minuut voordat u stappe 3-5 herhaal. Herhaal SLEGS indien u dokter dienooreenkomstig geadviseer het.

7. Plaas die doppie terug op die mondstuk om die toestel teen stof en vullis te beskerm.

______________________________________

Kinders mag hulp nodig hê om die inhaleerder vas te hou, en daarom is dit belangrik dat die toestel op presies dieselfde oomblik gedruk word as wat die kind inasem.Toestelle soos "Aerochambers" of "Huff Puff Kits" kan by kinders gebruik word om die toediening meer effektief te maak. 

Inhaleerders werk vinnig en effektief.

Inhalers should be cleaned periodically. To clean, remove the canister from the inhaler unit, rinse unit in warm water, dry thoroughly and replace canister.

 


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2014-04-14 10:57:44 AM

VANOGGEND BIED ONS U MEER MEER OOR OUTISME. 'N WOORD WAT ONS BAIE HOOR, MAAR WAARVAN ONS GEWOONLIK NIE SO BAIE WEET NIE.

Outisme is ‘n lewenslange, komplekse ontwikkelings afwyking, wat alle bevolkingsgroepe/kulture wêreldwyd ewe veel affekteer. Tans 1 uit 88 geboortes. Dit is vier keer meer algemeen by seuns as meisies en ook vier keer meer algemeen by die eersgeborenes as latere geboortes.

Light it up blue (LIUB), gedryf deur Autism South Africa (asa) in Suid- Afrika, is ‘n wêreldwye veldtog om met die bewusmaking van outisme te help.

What does the word “Autism” mean?

It is a Latin word construction that simply means “self+condition” or atypical condition of the self. Autism is a word that names a specific set of significant behavioural symptoms that have been linked to biological impacts on the typical development patterns of growth, change, and stability of the central nervous system over the life span of people within the Autistic Spectrum.

Autism is medically/psychiatrically classified as a Pervasive Developmental Disorder that globally effects a person’s early cognitive development, usually including basic sensorimotor planning, typical behaviours, communication powers (distinct from speech and language capacity), and social relatedness capacities.

Most often, it present as significant delays in pre-schoolers’ typically rapid and broad acquisition of functional skills, communication fluency and typical social interactiveness across people, places and events.

It is usually apparent in its affects in infants from birth to three years old, when our critical initial neurological development takes place. However, Mild Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome may only become apparent as late as 5 to 10 years old, when a child’s higher social communication, reasoning, and perspective-taking skills should emerge.

What causes Autism?

The developmental features and behavioural symptoms of Autism are the result of a neurological disorder that affects the typical growth, change and stability of the structures and functions of the central nervous system – the brain. Autism has proven to have a large number of causes that may fall into two categories:

  1. Internal (genetic/innate and congenital/naturally occurring) and
  2. EXTERNAL (environmental toxins / but NOT nurtured).

Recent Genome project research shows that as many as 20 – 30 genes may be involved in Autism. This means that we do not yet have a single genetic marker test to predict risks of Autism or to identify prenatal or new born infants with Autism. Environmental means that some specific non-genetic elements that the child was exposed to during pregnancy or infancy (birth to three), may cause pervasive changes or significant damage to the anatomical structures or biochemical systems of the brain during the pregnancy and/or the early years of life. Autism is also varied congenital condition that can just occur naturally as the nervous system unborn or young child develops.

‘n Paar kenmerke van outisme:

-Speel nie met maats nie.

-Onvanpaste gehegtheid aan voorwerpe.

-Lag of giggel onvanpas of sonder duidelike rede.

-Waarneembare fisiese ooraktiwiteit of waarneembare ekstreme passiwiteit.

-Reageer nie op normale onderrigmetodes nie.

-Eendersheid of dieselfde roetine.

-Verset teen verandering.

-Verkies om alleen te wees. Afsydige houding.

-Nie werklike vrees vir gevare nie.

-Tol /draai voorwerpe.

-Volgehoue, eienaardige spel.

-Geen reaksie op verbale opdragte; tree op asof doof is.

-Echolalia (Herhaal woorde of frases in die plek van taal)

-Woedebuie – vertoon ekstreme onsteltenis vir geen duidelike rede.

-Gebruik gebare of wys met vinger i.v.p. van praat om behoeftes duidelik te maak.

-Ongelyke grof- en fyn motoriese vaardighede. (bv. skop nie bal, maar kan blokke stapel.)

-Wil nie drukkies hê / gee nie. Wil nie vertroetel wees nie.

Elke persoon met outisme is egter uniek en hoef nie noodwendig al die kenmerke te hê nie.

What are we facing if our child does have Autism?

The reality we must face is that Autism is often a very misunderstood condition. It is a use-able diagnostic identification for a wide spectrum of disorders in relation a number of underlying causes, many of which are still unknown. The word “Autism” then does help us accurately name a real condition noted for very atypical thinking processes, complex and difficult social behaviours, diverse communication profiles.

Most of our families must deal with many struggles. It is a struggle to initially obtain a proper diagnosis. It is usually an on-going struggle to find and provide our children the most appropriate services and effective interventions. It is a struggle to live, work and copes together as we learn how to support persons with Autism to understand our typical world of people, objects and events. These struggles will be some of the most important and worthwhile ones we experience in our life. Ad midst all these struggles we must engage in the challenge of achieving our potentials for a full and satisfying life too. This is why maintaining a healthy self and family care balance is very important.

A final thought:

Like many complex issues, around the world, in the field of Autism there are different ideologies and perspectives regarding the “correct” approach to take. As usual, there is no one “right” answer, no solution that works for every family and person with Autism. Therefore, it is important that everyone in our community learn to respect each other’s hopes, ideas, concerns and choices and commit to fully support each other’s efforts.

For more information: (http://understandingautism.org/uaorg_OREALITY/UAORG_1brainbody.html)


Comments(0)
2014-03-13 01:23:48 PM

Inleiding

Beweging siekte is 'n algemene probleem wat by mense voorkom wat per motor, trein, vliegtuig of boot reis. Dit veroorsaak naarheid, lighoofdigheid en ander probleme en alhoewel dit irriterend is, is dit nie 'n ernstige toestand nie.

 

Oorsake

Beweging siekte kom voor wanneer die brein teenstrydige boodskappe van die oë en balans organe in die ore ontvang. (Dit is 'n toestand waarin daar 'n verskil is tussen visueel waargeneem beweging en die werklike sin van beweging). Hierdie teenstrydige boodskappe kan veroorsaak word deur herhalende bewegings soos die beweging van 'n motor, vliegtuig of trein of die deinings van die see. Beweging siekte kan ook voorkom tydens 'n rit by 'n pretpark. Sommige mense is meer geneig hiertoe as ander en oor die algemeen, is kinders meer vatbaar as volwassenes.

 

Symptoms

Motion sickness can start suddenly with a sick, uneasy feeling, accompanied by cold sweats. It may then lead to dizziness, followed by nausea and vomiting. Other symptoms may include:

* Belching

* Making more saliva than usual

* Warmth

* Sweating

Usually, the symptoms of motion sickness stop when the movement causing them, ceases. However, in some cases, people may suffer from symptoms for a few days after the stimulus ceases.

 

Management

A number of precautions can be taken to reduce the symptoms of motion sickness. Over-the-counter treatment options may also be taken before the start of the journey.

 

Precautions/Voorsorgmaatreëls

Motion sickness can be prevented or reduced by following these suggestions:

* Keep your head still and rest against the back of the seat.

* Keep your eyes on the outside world while in motion, e.g. if you are in a car, sit in the front and look in the direction in which you are moving.

* Stay on the deck and look to the horizon when on a boat.

* Sit halfway down by a window that overlooks the wings when on an aeroplane.

* Wanneer jy per trein reis, sit by 'n venster en kyk in die rigting waarin die trein ry.

* Vermy lees, fliek of kyk na goed wat binne-in die voertuig is waarin jy reis.

* Voor jou reis begin, eet iets wat nie baie speserye bevat of vetterig is nie en moenie ooreet nie.

* Moenie rook of naby rokers sit nie.

* Maak seker dat jy vars lug kry.

* Probeer om kinders se aandag af te lei deur met hulle te praat of om hulle na musiek te laat luister.

* As jou kind begin siek voel, stop die voertuig onmiddellik en laat jou kind rondloop.

* Deur die kind vir 'n paar minute op sy/haar rug te laat lê, mag ook help.

* Plaas 'n klam lappie op jou kind se voorkop - dit het 'n baie strelende effek.

* Sorg dat jou kind in staat is om by die venster uit te sien.

Oor-die-toonbank behandeling

 

As daar 'n moontlikheid bestaan dat beweging siekte tydens 'n reis mag voorkom, behoort u dit te oorweeg om die geskikte, voorkomende medikasie te neem. Voordat 'n produk gebruik word, is dit belangrik dat u die volgende weet:

 

* Beweging siekte medikasie veroorsaak lomerigheid.

* Indien u enige ander medikasie as die beweging siekte medikasie gebruik, mag dit 'n interaksie met die ander medikasie tot gevolg hê.

* Swanger vroue moet hul dokters spreek voor beweging siekte medikasie geneem word.

 

Conclusion

The symptoms of motion sickness may be considerably alleviated with appropriate planning of the journey and taking suitable medication prior to its commencement. Although the condition is not usually serious, severe cases and those which become progressively worse, should be referred to a doctor.

 


Comments(1)
2014-03-13 10:00:02 AM

Met die winter om die draai, wil ons u graag meer bewus maak van die tipes medisyne wat beskikbaar is vir die behandeling van verkoue en griep.

 

Tydens 'n 2006 opname wat onder 7 000 werknemers van 60 maatskappye gedoen is, het dit aan die lig gekom dat 2 877 werknemers gedurende Mei en Augustus van die werk af weggebly het as gevolg van siekte. 'n Totaal van 1 489 van hierdie werknemers het griep gehad, wat 52% van die groep verteenwoordig wat van die werk weggebly het. Omdat verkoue en griep onvermydelik is, is voorkoming in die vorm van goeie higiëne en griepinspuitings, van kardinale belang. Daar is egter geen entstof teen verkoue nie.

 VERKOUE EN GRIEP

Verkoue en griep word beide veroorsaak deur virusse wat die lugweë affekteer. Gewone verkoue kan veroorsaak word deur meer as 200 virusse. Oor die algemeen is verkoue 'n self-beperkende virale infeksie wat gekenmerk word deur simptome van 'n loperige neus (rinoree), 'n toe neus (kongestie), nies, seer keel, hoes en kopseer. Verkoue en griep word oorgedra deur nies en hoes en word "druppel verspreiding" genoem. Verkoue kan ook van persoon tot persoon oorgedra word deur direkte kontak. ‘n Siek persoon kan via die slymdruppels op sy/haar hande, virusse oordra na lessenaars, rekenaar-sleutelborde of deurhandvatsels. 'n Gesonde persoon wat in kontak kom met hierdie oppervlaktes sal die virus na sy/haar oë of neus oordra.

 Griep is 'n ernstiger virale siekte wat deur die griepvirus veroorsaak word. Daar is drie tipes seisoenale griepvirusse: A, B en C. Soos die verkoue virus, word griep versprei deur die inaseming van besmette druppels of deur direkte kontak met besmette uitskeidings. Alhoewel die simptome van griep soortgelyk is aan dié van verkoue, is griepsimptome gewoonlik ernstiger en dit kan koors, spierpyne, pyn, moegheid en swakheid insluit.

 CHOICE OF MEDICATIION

When administering medication to treat cold and flu-associated symptoms, it is important to establish which medication a person is taking in order to determine possible drug interactions with over-the-counter (OTC) medicine. Medicine that is used to treat colds and flu reduces the symptoms, enabling the individual to function while the body's immune system prepares to defeat the virus.

Recommended OTC products to treat flu and colds include decongestants, antihistamines, cough remedies, analgesics and antipyretics.

 DECONGESTANTS

BE ADVISED THAT SPORTS PEOPLE MAY BE TESTED FOR STIMULANTS WHEN USING THESE PRODUCTS

Decongestants are used to relieve nasal congestion that is associated with a common cold. Decongestants improve the feeling of nasal stuffiness. There are two types of decongestants: topical (nasal sprays, nasal drops & nasal gel) or oral (swallow, tablets & capsules). The associated side-effects with oral decongestants include increased heart rate and a reduced appetite. Decongestants should not be given to patients with diabetes, hypertension, an overactive thyroid, narrow-angle glaucoma and heart disease. Use of nasal sprays or drops must be limited to 3-5 days, as continued use may cause rebound congestion.

 ANTIHISTAMINES

Antihistamines are used to treat a runny nose (rhinorrhoea), sneezing, watery eyes and other irritating symptoms that accompany colds. Associated side-effects of the antihistamines that are present in most cold and flu remedies include drowsiness, blurred vision and a dry mouth. Caution must be exercised when driving or operating heavy machinery. Should a cold and flu remedy contain a first-generation antihistamine, it should be best taken at night to avoid sedation in the workplace. Antihistamines should not be taken with alcohol because of additive central nervous system depressant effects.

 COUGH REMEDIES

The type of prescribed product depends on the type of cough. Cough mixtures can be classified according to four categories:

  • Cough suppressants: Cough suppressants are used to treat dry, tickly unproductive coughs.
  • Expectorants: Expectorants are given to treat loose, chesty coughs to relieve bronchial mucus.
  • Broncholidators: Broncholidators are used to dilate the constricted airways.
  • Mucolytics: These are given to reduce the thickness of the mucus and to make it easier to cough up.

PYNSTILLERS EN KOORSWERENDE MIDDELS

Pynstillers en koorswerende middels word gebruik vir die behandeling van hoofpyne, koors en spierpyne. Kodeïen, aspirien, ibuprofen en parasetamol is algemene koorswerende middels en is teenwoordig in verkoue en griepmedikasie. Kodeïen is daarvoor bekend dat dit lomerigheid en hardlywigheid veroorsaak, veral by ouer mense. Versigtigheid moet aan die dag gelê word wanneer daar bestuur word of met swaar masjinerie gewerk word.

 Soms word stimulante soos kafeïen by sekere middels gevoeg om die newe-effekte te bestry wat deur anthistamine veroorsaak word. Sou 'n persoon moet gaan werk, kan die kafeïen help om die lomerigheid te verminder.

 VOORSORGMAATREëLS VIR DIE WERKPLEK

Die spreekwoord "Voorsorg is beter as nasorg", is baie pertinent in die geval van verkoue en griep. Die griep-entstof beskerm 'n mens teen die stamme van die griepvirus wat die meeste die seisoen voorkom.. Dit beteken dat die persoon wat die inspuiting ontvang, slegs beskerm is teen die virusse wat in die entstof voorkom. Dit word voorgestel dat werknemers die inspuiting moet ontvang om hulself te beskerm teen die griepvirus.

 Om te verhoed dat griep- en verkoue virusse by die werk vesprei word, word die volgende voorsorgmaatreëls aanbeveel:

  • Bel in siek wanneer nodig: Omdat virusse maklik versprei word in klein areas soos kantore, moet mense liefs by die huis bly as hulle van die simpotme ondervind.
  • Bedek jou mond en neus wanneer jy hoes of nies: Virusse word hoofsaaklik versprei deur mukus (slym) druppels. Om the verhoed dat die virus versprei word na jou hande en werksoppervlaktes, bedek jou mond met die binnekant van jou elmboog of bedek jou mond met 'n sneesdoekie. Gooi onmiddellik die sneesdoekie weg.
  • Wash hands often: Washing hands with soap and water for at least 15-20 seconds, ensures that both sides of the hands, and the nails and lower arms, are washed thoroughly. If soap and water are not available, an alcohol-based solution or wipes should be used.
  • Wipe down office surfaces and common areas with disinfectant wipes: Research has shown that common areas, such as door handles, microwave doors, telephones, desks, toilet seats, soap dispensers and computer keyboards, contain large amounts of the viruses that cause colds and flu.

Die verspreiding van verkoue en griep kan verminder word deur goeie higiëne te handhaaf soos om gereeld hande te was, jou mond te bedek wanneer jy hoes of nie en om algemene higiëne in die kantoor area toe te pas. Jaarlikse griepinspuitings word aanbeveel en in gevalle waar griep en verkoue NIE verhoed kan word nie, kan oor-die-toonbank medikasie gebruik word om die simptome te verlig.

 


Comments(0)
2013-10-29 02:42:21 PM

Droë oë is 'n toestand wanneer daar nie genoeg trane is om die oë te "smeer" nie en ons deel graag die volgende met u:

DIE FUNKSIE VAN TRANE

Trane is verantwoordelik vir die handhawing van die gesondheid van die buitenste oppervlak van die oë nl. die kornea. Trane "smeer" die oppervlakte en spoel alle "vreemde" deeltjies weg. Dit verminder die risiko van oog infeksies en hou die oppvervlak glad en helder. Oortollige trane vloei in klein dreineringskanale in wat in die binneste hoeke van die oë geleë is en dreineer dan na die agterkant van die neus.

Die traan "film" bestaan uit drie lae:

  • Die binneste laag is 'n dun lagie slym wat deur die konjunktiva (die wit gedeelte van die oog), geproduseer word.      Hierdie lagie help om trane egalig oor die oë te versprei.
  • Die middelste laag bestaan hoofsaaklik uit 'n verdunde soutwater oplossing wat deur die traankliere vervaardig word. Die waterige laag maak die oë skoon en spoel stof en ander irritante weg om sodoende die oë klam en gemaklik te hou.
  • Die buitenste laag van die traan "film" bestaan hoofsaaklik uit vetterige olies wat lipiede genoem word. Hierdie laag word deur die kliere op die buitekant van die ooglede vervaardig. Die lipiede maak die traan oppvervlakte sag en vertraag die verdamping van die waterig lagie van die trane.

CAUSES OF DRY EYES

Dry eyes are caused by increased tear evaporation, decreased tear production, or an imbalance in tear composition. If the liquid outer layer of the tear is disrupted, the tears will evaporate too quickly.

If there is insufficient water in the tears, the oil and mucus may mingle, forming a stringy discharge from the eyes. Inadequate amounts of mucus in the eyes prevent even spreading of the tears, resulting in dry patches on the cornea.

Increased evaporation may be due to poor tear quality, decreased blinking or exposure to smoke, wind and dry climates. Reading, using a computer or watching television, may decrease blinking.

Decreased tear production may result from ageing, certain medications and some medical conditions. Medications such as hormones, antihistamines, decongestants, blood pressure medication, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes and thyroid problems, may also cause symptoms of dry eyes.

SYMPTOMS

When tears don't lubricate the eyes adequately, patients may experience the following symptoms:

 

  • Pain
  • Light sensitivity
  • A dry, gritty or scratchy sensation
  • Burning or itching
  • Blurred vision
  • Redness

Symptoms may worsen in dry conditions or higher temperatures, or with prolonged use of the eyes. Increased tearing may also result as the eyes attempt to correct the problem. However, it is important to address the underlying cause in order to treat the symptoms.

COMPLICATIONS

Mild cases of dry eyes do not often cause serious problems. Complications may however include increased eye infections and eye inflammation, leading to scarring of the cornea and visual problems.

BEHANDELING

Pasiënte wat volgehoue droë oë simptome toon, moet 'n oogspesialis raadpleeg om enige onderliggende toestand wat dalk die oorsaak van die probleem kan wees, vas te stel. Kunsmatige traan oplossings en oogsalwe mag help om die natuurlike trane aan te vul. Produkte wat geen preseveermiddels bevat nie, is ook beskikbaar vir gereelde gebruik.

Die gebruik van 'n warm, klam waslap om die ooglede sagkens mee af te vee, mag help om inflammasie van die ooglede te voorkom. Sommige geneeshere stel voor dat 'n ligte babasjampoe gebruik word om die ooglede mee skoon te maak.

Langdurige rekenaar werk of werk wat visuele konsentrasie verg, kan die knip van oë verminder. Vat 'n kort breek of sluit die oë vir 'n paar minute - dit mag help om die oë te smeer.

Droë oë is 'n algemene probleem. Eenvoudige oplossings soos om 'n kort breek te neem of die oë te knip, mag vir sommige mense werk. Ander mag voordeel trek deur die gebruik van "oor-die-toonbank" medikasie. Indien bogenoemde nie verligting bring nie, moet 'n dokter geraadpleeg word.


Comments(0)
2013-09-19 12:10:56 PM

Met die regte behandeling, sal minder ernstige brandwonde gewoonlik binne 'n paar dae herstel. Ernstiger brandwonde mag hospitalisasie en gespesialiseerde behandeling verg. Sou daar enige onsekerheid bestaan oor die erns van die brandwond, moet die pasiënt na die naaste ongevalle/hospitaal verwys word.

Pasiënte moet altyd in die volgende gevalle mediese advies vra:

  • Indien die brandwond pynloos is

  • Indien die brandwond in die geval van 'n kind, groter as 'n 20c munt is

  • Indien die brandwond geïnfekteer is

  • Indien die wond deur chemikalië veroorsaak is

  • Indien die brandwond deur elektrisiteit/krag veroorsaak is

  • Indien dit langer as 10-14 dae neem om te herstel

  • Indien, in die geval van 'n volwassene, die wond groter is as die grootte van 'n volwasse hand

  • Indien die wond op die gesig, hande, nek,voete of gewrigte voorkom.

Minor burns are generally referred to as superficial epidermal or superficial dermal burns. (These burns can also be referred to as first-degree burns.) This type of burn will appear reddened with swelling and can evolve into a blister.

The intial management of any burn is to cool the tissue by keeping it under running tap water for at least 20 minutes. Items such as frozen peas, ice, butter and toothpaste should not be used to cool burn wounds. These items can increase the depth of the burn wound by damaging the healthy tissue under the wound.

Keeping the wound moist, can assist in the rapid healing of minor burns. Moist wound healing allows the burn to stay bathed in its own fluid to assist with less painful healing and to help the wound to heal faster.

Blase wat nie stukkend is nie:

Blase op nie-funksionele areas waar daar nie chemiese middels by betrokke is nie, moet heel gelaat word en vir 3-5 dae bedek word. Kontak die apteek om die regte produk te kry. In die geval van groter blase, moet die pasiënt na 'n geneesheer verwys word.

Heel dikwels gaan die blase vanself oop, maar as 'n reël, moet die blase toegelaat word om so lank as moontlik heel te bly. Indien die blaas breek, word dit behandel met antibiotiese en antiseptiese salwe en rome soos Bactroban, Supiroban, Betadine, Septadine, Podine ens. Die doel van die behandeling is om sekondêre bakteriële infeksies te verhoed. Brandwonde waarvan die blase stukkend is, moet bedek word met verbande of pleisters wat by die apteek beskikbaar is.

Any chemical burn should be referred to your GP or a specialist burn centre for further management as these type of burns often evolve into a deeper injury.

 


Comments(0)
2013-08-06 11:07:31 AM

Almal van ons wat babas het/gehad het, weet dat daar min dinge is wat soveel spanning, kommer, frustrasie en selfs woede veroorsaak soos baba-koliek. Vandag wil ons u graag meer van hierdie toestand vertel en ons hoop dat u die inligting nuttig sal vind en selfs kan deel met persone wat koliekbabas het.

 

WAT IS KOLIEK?

Koliek word gewoonlik gediagnoseer wanneer 'n andersins florerende en gesonde baba by tye vir ten minste drie dae binne een week huil. In baie gevalle begin die huilbui laatmiddag of vroegaand, en duur drie tot vier uur. Die baba begin dikwels na 'n voeding huil en meer voedsel kan die huilery vererger.

 

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

During a colic attack, your baby will cry inconsolably and it will seem as if he/she is experiencing terrible pain. Crying will be loud and penetrating and the baby might also become red in the face. Fists might be balled and the legs and arms might be pulled up against the stomcah. Crying might worsen as you get more tense and frustrated.

 

WHAT CAUSES COLIC?

Although there are numerous theories regarding this condition, the precise causes are still unknown. In general, it is believed that colic is caused by stomach cramps and the pain of the air that builds up in the intestine. It could be because the baby swallows air during feeding or when crying,or because of the inability to digest certain parts of the feeding properly. Colic can be worsened by stress (yes, babies also experience stress and fear). Colic is not caused by any other serious underlying conditions, as it is an otherwise healthy baby that develops colic.

 

RISK FACTORS

Although the causes of colic are not known, it seems as if babies are more prone to develop colic if :

*They are first children

*Swallow a lot of air during feeding

*They are allergic to cow's milk

*They are subjected to their parents' fear and tension

 

HOE LANK DUUR KOLIEK?

In die meeste gevalle ontwikkel koliek na die ouderdom van twee weke, en bereik 'n hoogtepunt op een tot twee maande. Dit begin na drie maande opklaar. Die meeste babs is vry van koliek teen die ouderdom van vyf of ses maande.

 

WAT OM TE DOEN/WHAT TO DO

Om 'n koliekbaba te help, is 'n geval van probeer en kyk wat werk. Wat vir sommige babas werk, werk dalk nie vir ander nie. Daar is egter dinge wat u kan doen om die huilende baba te probeer troos:

*'n Warm handdoek kan teen die baba se maag gehou word om die maagspiere te help ontspan.

*Dra die baba in 'n dradoek wanneer hy/sy huil. Die beweging en jou liggaamshitte kan troos en help om wind uit te laat.

*Wanneer babas huil, sluk hulle meer lug, wat die maagpyn vererger. Sus die baba saggies in jou arms of 'n babaswaai om hom/haar te help om wind uit te laat en    hopelik te laat ontspan.

*Babamassering is 'n goeie manier om jou baba te help ontspan en wind te laat. Tegniek is nie so belangrik nie. Maak 'n bietjie baba-olie in jou hande warm en vryf dit saggies oor sy haar ledemate, rug en maag. Wanneer jy die magie masseer, beweeg jou vingers op aan die regterkant en oor en af aan die baba se linkerkant om krampe en wind te verlig.

*Try to let the baby lie on his/her stomach on your lap while you gently rub and pat the back to get rid of air. Vary this by holding him/her upright to get the air bubbles moving.

*Reduce the amount of stimulation in the room. Bright lights, noise and people can overstimulate a baby and cause him/her to cry more and swallow more air.

*Try to have a warm bath or shower with your baby. The combination of skin contact and warm water can be soothing. A warm bath where you spend more time than ususal to massage soap over the stomach and back, can help the baby relax.

*Go for a short drive. The sound of the engine is soothing and the vibration of the car could help the baby to let out air.

*Try your best to relax. Your stress levels could have an influence on the baby and the attacks could worsen.

*Ma's wat borsvoed moet deur 'n toetstydperk gaan waarin stimulante soos kaffeïen en sjokolade vermy word, aangesien dit moontlik deur die borsmelk na die baba oorgedra word en koliekaanvalle kan vererger. Die eet van suiwelprodukte en neute kan ook jou baba se koliek vererger.

*Gee jou baba 'n fopspeen/tandering om aan te suig.

*Oor-die-toonbank koliekmiddels wat maagkrampe verlig of ingewandwind verminder, kan verligting bring. Daar is baie van hierdie produkte - vra ons gerus vir raad.

*MOENIE alleen probeer regkom nie. Kry 'n betroubare oppasser en neem 'n aand af om te herstel. Jy sal kalmer voel en die volgende koliekaanval beter kan hanteer.

 

MITES/MYTHS

KOLIEKBABS IS NIE GESOND NIE

Onwaar - koliek veroorsaak baie ongelukkigheid, maar is nie 'n teken van 'n ernstige siekte nie. Koliek word slegs gediagnoseer as 'n baba andersins gesond is en normaalweg gewig aansit. Jou dokter sal jou baba ondersoek en jou gerusstel.

COLIC IMPEDES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS

According to studies and research, there is no proof that colic interferes with the normal bonding between parent and child. The pressure of a baby that never stops crying however, could cause exhaustion and marital stress.

MOTHERS WHO BREASTFEED SHOULD AVOID BEANS AND CABBAGE

Most probably not true. Some mothers suspect that food which cause flatulence, can reach their babies through the breastmilk and thus cause colic. Food like beans and cabbage however, cause abdominal wind as it breaks down in the digestion system, but components that cause flatulence, do not reach the bloodstream or breastmilk.

 

WANNEER OM 'N DOKTER TE SPREEK

As jou baba meer as gewoonlik huil, praat met jou dokter om enige spysvertering- of ander siekte uit te sluit. Kontak onmiddellik 'n dokter as jou baba koorsig is, siek lyk of enige ander simptome het behalwe dat hy/sy huil. Jy moet ook jou dokter spreek as die eise wat 'n huilende baba aan jou stel, jou depressief of gewelddadig laat voel. Dit is nie ongewoon vir uitgeputte ouers om gedagtes te kry om hul baba seer te maak sodat hy/sy kan ophou huil nie. Indien jy voel dat daar 'n besliste risiko is dat jy hierop gaan reageer, kry onmiddellik mediese hulp.

 

 


Comments(1)
2013-08-05 10:50:22 AM

WAT IS ATRITIS?

Eenvoudig gestel, is artritis die inflammasie van die voering van een of meer gewrigte (nie die areas waar die twee bene ontmoet nie). Indien hierdie toestand nie reg behandel word nie, kan die inflammasie vir lang periodes aanhou en permanente skade aan die gewrigte aanrig deur die verlies aan kraakbeen en erosie van die bene.

Nog ‘n wanopvatting is dat artritis ‘n enkel siekte is, terwyl dit meer as 100 afsonderlike, maar verwante siektes insluit wat elke deel van die liggaam kan affekteer, insluitend die vel en interne organe. Afgesien van rumatoïede artritis, sitemiese lupus erythamatosus en osteo-artritis, sluit ander vorme jig, ankiloserende spondilitis, psoriatiese artritis en sistemiese sklerose in.

Arthritis is one of the leading disabling diseases in our country and at least one in seven South Africans is affected by this disease. Worldwide, one in every 100 people either has rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythmatosus, both of which commonly affect the joints and cause pain.

Artritis is nie ‘n siekte wat net ouer mense affekteer nie. Die oorgrote meerderheid pasiënte is tussen 20 en 50 jaar oud en selfs babas so jonk as 6 maande, is al met jong rumatoïede artritis gediagnoseer.

 

WHO IS AT RISK OF DEVELOPING ARTHRITIS?

Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus commonly affect people from Asian or Caucasian descent, but other groups may also be affected.

If you are overweight, you have a higher risk of developing arthritis, especially in the back, knees and hips. If you injured a joint in an accident or as a result of overuse, you are also at risk of developing osteoarthritis.

Arthritis is NOT caused by what you eat. People with gout should however, avoid purine-containing foods and excessive alcohol intake.

WHEN SHOULD I SUSPECT THAT I HAVE ARTHRITIS?

If you experience painful swelling of the hands or other joints, with early morning stiffness for more than a month, you should consult your doctor.

If you have rheumatoid arthritis, treatment should ideally commence within six months of onset, because the earlier you are treated, the better your outcome.

HOW IS ARTHRITIS DIAGNOSED?

Various tests are available. Your doctor will take a thorough medical history from you (including family history of illnesses) and do a physical examination. He or she will test for fluid around your joints, check whether your joints appear warm, red and tender and do tests to determine if you have difficulty moving a joint. You may also be sent for blood tests and joint x-rays. A sample of joint fluid may be taken and sent to a laboratory for diagnosis.

HOE WORD ARTRITIS BEHANDEL?

Daar is ‘n wanopvatting dat artritis nie suksesvol behandel kan word nie. Artritis moet as ‘n chroniese deurlopende siekte behandel word. Die doel van die behandeling is om verdere gewrigskade te voorkom, om funksionaliteit te verbeter en pyn sodanig te verlig dat pasiënte ‘n normale lewe kan lei, sonder pyn.

Steroïde inspuitings en anti-inflammatoriese medikasie kan ook voorgeskryf word. Gewigsverlies speel ook ‘n belangrike rol aangesien dit die gewig-draende vermoë van jou knieë affekteer terwyl oefening weer die spierkrag verbeter.

Steroïde (kortisoon) word gebruik om inflammasie te verminder en kan ingespuit word of mondelings geneem word om akute opvlammings te behandel.Anti-inflammatoriese medikasie word gebruik om inflammasie te behandel en pyn te verlig. Moontlike newe-effekte van die anti-inflammatoriese medikasie sluit in gesuis in die ore, maag irritasies of gastrointestinale bloeding, hartkwale en lewer- en nierskade. Kortisoon word geassosieer met die verdunning van bene, katarakte, toename in gewig en diabetes.

Biologics - genetically engineered proteins derived from human genes, which is used to inhibit specific components of the immune system that cause inflammation – are by far the best treatment for patients with arthritis.

 

 ONS KYK NOU NA DIE VERSKILLENDE TIPES ARTRITIS

 

*Osteo-artritis

*Sistemiese lupus eritromatose

*Spinale artritis

*Rumatoïede artritis

*Ankiloserende spondilitis

*Gout/Jig

*Sistemiese sklerose

 

 TYPES OF ARTHRITIS

OSTEOARTHRITIS

This type of arthritis develops when the cartilage covering the end of the bones gradually wear away as you age. As a result, bones rub against each other, causing pain and swelling.

Osteoarthritis mostly affects the hands and weight-bearing joints such as the knees, hips and spine. Symptoms include pain, stiffness and difficulty in moving the affected joint. Pain is mostly experienced at night and tends to worsen with overuse of the joints.

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHAMATOSUS(SLE)

This is a chronic auto-immune disorder that affects multiple organ systems such as the skin, joints, kidneys and brain. Joints that are affected include the fingers, hands, wrists and knees.

Symptoms include chest pain when you take a deep breath and you may also experience fatigue and fever with no OTHER cause. Other symptoms include a general feeling of discomfort, hair loss, mouth sores, sensitivity to sunlight, skin rash, swollen lymph glands, headaches, numbness, tingling, seizures, vision problems, personality changes and darker urine.

LAE RUGPYN OF SPINALE ARTRITIS

Oor die algemeen word mense oor 40 jaar deur spinale artritis geaffekteer. Hierdie tipe artritis kan geweldig pynlik wees en jou bedlêend laat of jou glad nie in staat stel om jou daaglikse take te verrig nie.

Spinale artritis word oor die algemeen veroorsaak deur die agteruitgang van die bene of vorige beserings. Seunuwees word vasgeknyp of platgedruk wat erge pyn of gevoelloosheid veroorsaak.

RUMATOïEDE ARTRITIS

Tipiese simptome van rumatoïede artritis is vroeë oggend styfheid in die hande met pynlike swelsels in die kleiner gewrigte van die hande en polse.

Hierdie tipe artritis is ‘n immuunsiekte wat veroorsaak word deur die liggaam se immuunsistseem wat “deurmekaar” raak en dan verkeerdelik die normale en gesonde gewrigte aanval. Dit veroorsaak inflammasie van die gewrigte se voering. Inflammasie versprei na die aangrensende weefsel en veroorsaak uitgebreide skade aan die been en kraakbeen.

ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

Inflammation of the joints between the spinal bones as well as those between the spine and pelvis, causes ankylosing spondylitis. This disease often starts in the joints between the pelvis and spine and usually between the ages of 20 and 40.

This type of arthritis is hereditary and symptoms include pain and stiffness that is worse at night or in the morning when you are not yet active. This pain often gets better as you become active or exercise.

Other symptoms include loss of motion in the lower spine and you may not be able to fully expand your chest, because this disease can also affect the rib joints. A very common symptom is fatigue.

GOUT

Gout is caused by the body’s inability to eliminate uric acid, a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines occur naturally in the body, but you can also get them when you eat certain foods such as organ meats (kidneys and liver), anchovies, herring, asparagus and mushrooms. Because the body cannot eliminate uric acid, it forms needle-like crystals in the joints that cause swelling and pain. This condition normally affects the big toe, knee and wrist joints.

Symptoms include intense pain, swelling and extreme tenderness in a joint. Often these symptoms start in a different joint such as the knee or ankle. The skin around the affected joint may appear red or purplish and as the attack subsides, the area around the inflamed joint may start peeling and become itchy.

SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

Also known as scleroderma, this condition normally affects women between the ages of 30 and 50. This is an autoimmune disease and is characterised by the thickening and tightening of the skin. Inflammation and scarring can lead to lung, kidney, heart and intestinal system problems.

Symptoms include changes to the colour of the fingers. Fingers will first become pale then turn blue as blood flow is cut off and when blood flow is restored, the fingers will become red. Other symptoms are tingling and pain in the affected areas.

Dit is belangrik om u geneesheer te kontak as u vermoed dat u een van die verskillende tipes artritis onder lede het. Die regte diagnose en tydige behandeling is van kardinale belang om die siektetoestand effektief te behandel.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Comments(2)
2013-08-02 12:01:39 AM

WORMS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS:

*    Bilharzia worms (Treamtode eg. Schistosoma) - occur mainly in tropical areas eg. the Lowveld;

*    Tapeworms (Cestoda eg. Taenia)

*    Roundworms (Nematoda eg. Ascaris, Enterobius etc.) 

The most common symptoms of worm infestations are the following:

*    Fever, tiredness, weight loss, anorexia, anemia;

*    Lungs - a chronic cough may be present. Sometimes vomiting of blood (hemoptise);

*    Skin - a rash and itching of the skin;

*    Abdomen - discomfort in abdominal area, pain, severe colic, cramps, diarrhea or loose stools;

*    Anus - perianale itching and blood in the stool;

*    Haematuria - blood in the urine (bilharzia);

*    Sputum or vomit may contain the larvae 

Indien enige van bogenoemde simptome teenwoordig is, kan 'n wurminfestasie vermoed word. Bevestiging kan verkry word deur:

*    Braking van vreemde materiaal - wurmreste word in die vomitus gesien

*    Dele van wurms of eiers wat met die blote oog in stoelgang sigbaar is;

*    Mikroskopiese ondersoek van die stoelgang. 

Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat wurminfestasies gewoonlik lintwurms en rondewurms insluit. Die een kom gewoonlik nie sonder die ander voor nie daarom sluit die behandeling van hierdie toestand middels in wat beide soorte doodmaak. Weens 'n gebrek aan spasie gaan ons na lintwurms kyk en in ons volgende nuusbrief, na rondewurms.  

Lintwurm: (Cestoda)

Die volwasse wurms kom in die dunderm van die mens voor en bestaan uit 'n kop, nek en 'n ketting van individuele segmente. Hierdie wurms word 300-500cm lank. Daar is twee tipes  lintwurm nl. die varklintwurm (Taenia solium) en beeslintwurm (Taenia saginata). Die varklintwurm het as vernaamste tussengasheer die vark, maar soms ook die mens. Die eindgasheer is die mens en die wurms word in die dunderm aangetref. D.m.v. suiers en hake, wat aan die kop voorkom, heg die wurms hulle aan die dermwand vas. Die agterste segmente wat die eiers bevat, word afgewerp en saam met die faeces uitgeskei. Indien 'n vark dit sou eet, ontwikkel die eiers tot embrio's wat in die spierweefsel voorkom. Binne 3 maande ontstaan blaaswurms. 'n Mens word met die blaaswurm besmet deur varkvleis te eet wat nie voldoende gaar gemaak is nie. 

Die beeslintwurm se tussengasheer is die bees. Die dragtige segmente word deur die bees ingesluk en daar ontwikkel die bevrugte eiers tot larwes en die blaaswurm kom in die vorm van 'n blasie ("masel") in die spierweefsel voor. Die mens eet nou die vleis wat nie goed gaar gemaak is nie en word daardeur besmet. As 'n mens die eiers inkry, ontwikkel die blasie in die mens self.  Dit kan in die brein, oë, spiere ens. ontwikkel en word sistiserkose genoem.  

Symptoms of tapeworm infestation:

Few symptoms occur:

*    Sometimes vague abdominal discomfort

*    Constipation or loose stools

*    Measels occur in different body parts eg. muscles and can be seen or feel during an examination. 

Diagnosis of tapeworm infestation:

*  Visible by finding eggs or segments in the stools;

*   Skin and serological tests.

*    X-ray examinations for sistisercosis 

Worms are transferred from:

1.    Animals (your dog and cat)

2.    Bad agricultural practices eg. raw pig and cattle manure on vegetables (that is why you are supposed to wash your vegetables before eating it)

3.    Person to person (that is why good hygiene is important and teaching your children good toilet manners eg. washing your hands)

4.    Soil - eg. sandpits at schools and at home (what sandpit does your and your neighbour's cat use?)

5.    Raw and half cooked meat. 

Behandeling van lintwurms:

Die sukses van lintwurm behandeling hang af van die typderk waaraan die lintwurm blootgestel word aan die middel, daarom is dit noodsaaklik om tablette vir 6 dae te drink om lintwurms dood te maak. Rondewurms kan vernietig word met 'n korter kursus van drie dae of selfs soms met 'n enkel dosering tablet (eenmalig). 

Because of the above mentioned facts, it is important that the whole family shoud be dewormed on a six monthly basis. The family includes the maid, the nanny, the cat, dog, mom, dad, kids and any other person with whom you are in regular contact.


Comments(0)
2013-07-30 12:00:00 AM

Die meeste medisynekabinette word gewoonlik in badkamers aangetref, en dit is een plek waar medisyne NIE gebêre moet word nie. Die hoë temperature en humiditeit wat in 'n badkamer voorkom, is nie geskik vir die stoor van medikasie nie. Hoe is u dan veronderstel om u medikasie te stoor?

LEES DIE ETIKET

Elke voubiljet spesifiseer presies hoe die spesifieke medikasie gestoor moet word. Die vereiste vir die meeste medikasie is dat dit in 'n koel, droë plek (weg van direkte sonlig), gestoor moet word. Sekere medisyne, veral sekere antibiotika's, moet in 'n yskas teen 'n spesfieke temperatuur gestoor word. Alle medisyne moet in die oorspronklike òf apteek verpakking gehou word. Dié wat in 'n yskas gestoor moet word, moet in 'n verseëlde plastieksak op 'n aparte rak, aan die agterkant van die yskas, gebêre word. Maak seker dat hierdie medikasie weg van voedsl, asook nuuskierige kindertjies, weggehou word.

 CHILD SAFETY

If you have children, all medicines (even herbal supplements and vitamins), should be kept out of reach in a high, locked cupboard. It often happens that small children think medicines are sweets, especially brightly coloured pills, or they mistake syrups for cooldrink. Locking medications away should be standard practice, especially if there is a person in your home who may be prone to substance abuse, or an elderly person who may confuse medications.

DON'T MIX DRUGS

Never store different medicines together in one container. This could lead to you accidentally taking the wrong medicine, or you may have difficulty remembering which drug is for which ailment. In the case of any kind of medical emergency, it would also make it difficult to identify which particular medication may be implicated.

SPUITE EN NAALDE

Dit is van uitsterste belang dat spuite en naalde nie in die normale huishoudelike vullisketting beland nie. Spuite en naalde is vir eenmalige gebruik bedoel en moet na gebruik, vernietig word. Die gevaar bestaan dat gebruikte spuite op die ashoop opgetel kan word en weer gebruik word. Dit dra by tot die verspreiding van aansteeklike siektes soos tuberkulose, HIV en vele meer. Spuite mag net gebruik word as dit uit die oorspronklike, steriele verpakking kom.

VEILIGE MANIERE VIR DIE WEGDOENING

VAN MEDISYNE

 

MEDISYNE INVENTARIS 

 Gaan ten minste elke drie maande deur al die medisyne in u huis en raak van al die vervalde medisyne ontslae. Raak ook ontslae van medisyne wat u nie langer benodig nie, of medisyne wat geen etiket op het nie. Moet NOOIT medikasie neem wat verby die vervaldatum is of van kleur of reuk verander het nie. Sommige vervalde medikasie, veral sekere antibiotika's, raak hoogs giftig wanneer dit verouder. Moet NOOIT medikasie wat vir u voorgeskryf is, met ENIGIEMAND deel nie. U kan daardie persoon se lewe in gevaar stel.

 

NO DRAIN DISPOSALS

Throwing medicine down a drain or flushing it down a toilet, is NOT permissable. More and more pharmaceuticals are being found in our water supply where they seep into our rivers, dams and lakes and filter into our soil. This could have devastating and toxic effects on humans, animals, plants and the environment in general. This practice does not only break laws set down by the Medicines Control Council, it is also extremely irresponsible.

MOET NIE MEDIKASIE IN ASDROMME GOOI NIE

Medisyne wat in asdromme weggegooi word, hou 'n gesondheidsrisiko in en besoedel die omgewing. U vullis verdwyn nie net nie. Dit word na stortingsterreine vervoer waar farmaseutiese produkte weer die omgewing sal binnedring. Daar bestaan ook 'n moontlikheid dat kinders, diere of vullisverwyderaars hierdie medikasie wat u weggegooi het, in die hande kan kry.

BACK TO THE PHARMACY

All unused, unawanted or expired medication should be kept in the original packaging and taken to your pharmacy for disposal. Pharmacies have access to controlled methods, such as incineration, to ensure that medicines are disposed of safely. Pharmacies are not allowed to buy back medicine from the public and old/expired medicine must be destroyed. Destroying medicine and sharps (needles and syringes), is done via incineration.

 


Comments(0)
2013-07-29 12:00:00 AM

U KIND EN RITALIN/YOUR CHILD AND RITALIN

U dokter kan RITALIN voorskryf omdat u kind moontlik ‘n aanhoudende patroon van abnormal hoë vlakke van aktiwiteit, impulsiwiteit en aandaggebrek toon, meer so as wat verwag sou word by ‘n kind in daardie ouderdomsgroep. Hierdie toestand staan bekend as Aandaggebrek- en Hiperaktiwiteitsindroom (AGHS), en mag probleme veroorsaak by die skool of tuis, wat u kind se akademiese vordering en algehele funksionering nadelig kan beïnvloed.

How does RITALIN work?

The active ingredient in RITALIN is called methylphenidate. Methylphenidate works as a stimulant in the brain, resulting in the release of dopamine. This has a notably “calming” and “focusing” effect in the child with ADHD.

Will your child become addicted to RITALIN?

Research has shown that individuals with ADHD do not become addicted to stimulants when taken as prescribed by their doctor. In fact, it has been shown that children with ADHD who are treated with stimulants are less likely to abuse alcohol and drugs later on.

The addiction to methylphenidate seems to occur when it induces large and fast dopamine increase in the brain. The doses prescribed by the doctor start low and increase slowly, similar to the natural production of dopamine, a chemical messenger, by the brain.

Hoe moet my kind sy/haar RITALIN neem?

Ritalin is in tablet- of kapsulevorm beskikbaar en in verskeie sterktes. U dokter sal die mees gepaste doseervorm vir u kind voorskryf en mag selfs van een doseervorm na ‘n ander verander, afhangend van hoe u kind op RITALIN reageer. Behandeling met RITALIN hoef nie onbepaald te wees nie en mag somtyds gestaak word na puberteit.

RITALIN LA kapsules:

Hierdie kapsules het ‘n unieke, gefaseerde vrystellingsmeganisme wat voordele bo normale tablette inhou:

· Dit word daagliks eenmaal in die oggend met of sonder voedsel geneem.

· Die kapsule kan oopgemaak word en die inhoud kan oor ‘n klein porsie sagte voedsel gestrooi word.

Maak seker dat die voedsel nie warm is nie aangesien dit die spesiale gefaseerde vrystellingsmeganisme van RITALIN LA kan beïnvloed. Die voedsel, tesame met die medikasie, moet in geheel geneem word en moenie gestoor word vir latere gebruik nie. BAIE BELANGRIK: DIE KAPSULES MAG NIE FYNGEMAAK, GEKOU OF VERDEEL WORD NIE!

What are the side-effects?

RITALIN may cause nervousness and sleeplessness, loss of appetite, headache, drowsiness, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Some of these effects are only there in the beginning and may be alleviated by taking the medication with food. A FULL list of possible side-effects is available in the package insert.

RITALIN is 'n spesialismiddel vir 'n spesifieke doel. Jou geneesheer is die een wat moet besluit of jou kind 'n kandidaat is vir die gebruik van RITALIN. Dit is verkeerd om druk op jou geneesheer te plaas om 'n voorskrif vir RITALIN te bekom vir ander doeleindes.


Comments(0)
2013-07-28 12:00:00 AM

Many people suffer from hypertension (high blood pressure) and we would like to share some interesting facts regarding this condition.

WHAT IS HYPERTENSION?

Hypertension is the medical name for high blood pressure. Pressure in your blood vessels rise when your heart pumps out blood and drops again when the heart relaxes. Therefore there are two levels to the reading. Depending on the age, in a healthy person, the top reading is usually below 140 and the bottom reading is usaully below 90. If the readings exceed these levels, you get the condition high blood pressure.

Blood pressure varies as the heart responds to the different demands made by the body. During quiet activities and sleep, the blood pressure is lower whilst again higher during bursts of activity such as stress or exercise. Often, hypertension is referred to as the "silent killer", because it has no symptoms until it reaches an advanced state and is usually detected during a routine visit to the doctor.

Althought hypertension does not often cause symptoms, it is still a serious condition and if not treated, raises the risk of a stroke, kidney failure, heart failure and premature death.

OORSAKE VAN HIPERTENSIE (HOë BLOEDDRUK)

By die meeste pasiënte met hoë bloeddruk, kan geen spesifieke oorsaak gevind word nie. Bloeddruk styg namate mens ouer word en soms is daar 'n familiegeskiedenis van hoë bloeddruk. By 'n klein persentasie mense is hoë bloeddruk die gevolg van niersiekte toestande, hormoonversteurings of abnormaliteit van die bloedvate.

WAT KAN JY DOEN OM JOU BLOEDDRUK TE VERLAAG?

  • Indien jy oorgewig is, verslank. Oorgewig plaas ekstra lading op die hart.
  • Volg 'n dieet met 'n hoë veselinhoud, vars vrugte en groente.
  • Verminder alkoholinname. Moenie meer as twee drankies per dag drink nie.
  • MOENIE rook nie. Rook is 'n bydraende risikofaktor vir hartsiekte.
  • Verminder jou soutinname.
  • Laat toets jou cholesterol. Hoë cholesterol en hoë bloeddruk neig om saam voor te kom.
  • Oefen gereeld, ten minste drie keer per week. (Dit sal jou bloeddruk verlaag en die voordele kan gewoonlik binne twee weke gesien word). Vra jou geneesheer vir 'n oefenprogram.
  • Verminder jou koffie en tee inname of drink gedekafeïeneerde koffie en tee.
  • Onthou om enige nuwe dokter wat jy besoek, rakende jou bloeddruk in te lig asook die narkotiseur sou jy vir 'n operasie moet gaan.

MEDICAL TREATMENT

Should the above measures don't bring your blood pressure under control, your doctor may prescribe antihypertensive medicines. It is important that the medication is taken regularly, most probably for the rest of your life. Some of these medicines can have side-effects. Although these side-effects may only be temporary, it should be reported to your doctor if and when it occurs. It might be necessary to change the prescribed medicine.

If you are using a contraceptive pill and have high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend an alternative method of contraception. Some medicines prescribed for arthritis, can cause fluid retention and high blood pressure and may have to be changed.

Sommige mense beweer dat hulle kan "voel" wanneer hulle bloeddruk hoog is, byvoorbeeld wanneer hulle hoofpyn het of gespanne voel. Slegs DAN neem hulle die medikasie en dit is die VERKEERDE manier om die medikasie te gebruik. Die medikasie moet elke dag geneem word, selfs wanneer jy beter voel.

Hoë bloeddruk is 'n lewenslange toestand wat beheer kan word, maar dit kan nie genees word nie. Indien jy jou medikasie stop, sal jou bloeddruk na sy vorige vlak terugkeer of selfs hoër wees, met die gepaardgaande risiko's. Om hierdie rede is dit dus BELANGRIK dat jy jou medikasie gereeld neem en jou dokter se instruksies NOUKEURIG volg. Laat neem gereeld jou bloeddruk - DIT MAG JOU TEEN 'N VROEë DOOD BESKERM.


Comments(0)
2013-07-26 12:00:00 AM
Soos ons almal weet, is die langverwagte Desembervakansie om die draai en oud en jonk kan nie wag om te ontspan en die wonderlike Suid-Afrikaanse weer te geniet nie. Baie van ons is egter nie bewus van die gevare wat sonbrand inhou nie en daarom deel ons graag 'n paar feite met u. (Baie dankie aan KANSA wat hierdie inligting aan ons verskaf het).

 

 

Ons begin deur vir u te verduidelik wat SPF EN UV beteken:

SPF - Indien u gewoonlik binne 5 minute begin brand, sal 'n sonskermmiddel met 'n SPF (Sun Protection Factor) van 15, u vel 15 keer langer beskerm, m.a.w.: Indien u 'n sekere mate van skade opdoen sonder 'n sonskermmiddel deur vyf minute in die son te wees, sal dit met 'n SPF produk 15 keer langer neem om dieselfde skade op te doen. Daar is NIE iets soos 'n totale "sonblok" nie.UV - Ultraviolet-strale is deel van die ligspektrum wat die aarde bereik. Daar is twee soorte UV-strale wat ons vel benadeel. Die breër UVB strale veroorsaak verbruining wat ons sonbrand noem en is verantwoordelik vir die pynlike brand, rooiheid en uiteindelik, velkanker. UVA strale dring dieper in die vel en kan skade aanrig aan die struktuur van die selle wat veroudering en die risiko van kanker verhoog.

 VIR VEILIGE SOMERPRET - BLY UIT DIE SON EN DRA 'N PET

Alhoewel Suid-Afrika internasionaal erken word vir sy wonderlike sonskynweer, word dit nooit genoem hoe gevaarlik hierdie sonskyn werklik is nie. Suid-Afrika het een van die hoogste syfers van velkanker in die wêreld en dit neem steeds toe. Die goeie nuus is darem dat velkanker maklik voorkom kan word en wanneer dit vroeg opgespoor word, is dit geneesbaar.

NO SUNBURN IS SAFE

The message is very clear, there is no such thing as safe sunburn. Although people think that an even bronze-colored body is part of our living in South Africa, it should rather be seen as a tangible warning of the risk of skin cancer. Although one does not realize it, the damage that the UV rays of the sun causes today, builds up with time and many years later it could mean either a melanoma or some other form of skin cancer.

Up to 80% UV-related skin damage is sustained before the age of 18 years. In children, only one case of sunburn that causes blisters, enhances the risk of skin cancer considerably.

 

WHAT ARE OUR RISKS?

Everybody is exposed, although people with darker skin tend to have a  lower risk because of the fact that their skin contains more natural melanin which protects the skin against sun damage.

Your risk is higher when:

*    You have a light skin and red hair

*    You have moles or marks on your skin

*    You've previously had skin cancer or where skin cancer runs in the family

*    You participate in any sport in the sun, especially during the heat of the day

*    You work in the sun

*    You travel a lot in the sun

 RIGLYNE OM SONVEILIGHEID 'N DAAGLIKSE DEEL VAN JOU LEWE TE MAAK

*Beperk jou tyd in die son, veral tussen 10vm. en 3 nm., want gedurende hierdie tyd is die son se strale die gevaarlikste.

*Sorg vir bedekking. Dra 'n diggeweefde hoed met 'n breë rand en klere wat dig geweef is. Wees veral op die uitkyk vir UV-beskermde klere, swempakke, sambrele en skadunette met die KANSA Merk van Erkenning by die pryskaartjies.

*Gebruik 'n breëspektrum (UVA & UVB) sonskermmiddel met 'n sonbeskermingsfaktor (SPF) van 15 of hoër, verkieslik 'n produk met die KANSA Merk van Erkenning. Maak seker dat die sonskermmiddel aan alle blootgestelde gedeeltes van die vel, veral die agterkant van die nek, punte van die ore, arms en hande aangewend word, en smeer dit gereeld aan terwyl jy in die son is.

*Wees daarvan bewus dat 'n sonskermmiddel slegs die voldoende SPF beskerming kan bied as die middel reg aangewend word en dik genoeg aangesmeer word.

*Beskerm jou oë. Wees veral op die uitkyk vir sonbrille met 'n ultraviolet-gradering van ten minste UV400 waarvan die lense deur KANSA erken word  vir effektiewe UV- beskerming.

*Bly in die koelte of gebruik 'n sambreel vir beskerming. Wees daarop bedag dat UV-strale vanaf gras, glas, sement, water en sand gereflekteer word. Onthou ook dat UV-strale nie dieselfde as hitte is nie daarom moet jy ekstra versigtig wees op winderige en bewolkte dae. 

 

 

REMEMBER: PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE!

ONTHOU: VOORSORG IS BETER AS NASORG! 


Comments(3)
2013-07-24 12:00:00 AM

Vandag wil ons graag met u 'n paar interessante feite deel rondom die gevare en negatiewe uitwerking wat rook op jou liggaam het. So, if your answer to the following three questions is a definite YES, please read further.

1.    DO YOU SMOKE?

2.    DO YOU WANT TO STOP?

3.    DO YOU NEED HELP?

ROOK IS DIE VERNAAMSTE, VOORKOMBARE OORSAAK VAN STERFTES TER WêRELD

Rook:

*    Veroorsaak die dood van1 uit elke 2 rokers.

*    Is 'n risikofaktor vir 6 van die 8 vernaamste oorsake van sterftes wêreldwyd, insluitend:

-    Hartsiekte

-    Pulmonale siekte

-    Verskeie kankers (veral longkanker)

*    In die algemeen verkort rook lewensduur met 15 jaar.

DIE VERNAAMSTE STATISTIEKE OMTRENT ROOK IN SUID-AFRIKA:

*    22% van volwassenes (>18jaar) en 24% van tieners (13-15 jaar) in Suid-Afrika rook.

*    >2.5 miljoen werksdae gaan jaarliks verlore a.g.v. rookverwante siektes.

*    Rook is een van die hoofoorsake van sterftes in Suid-Afrika

-    Malaria veroorsaak 2 sterfgevalle/week

-    Padongelukke veroorsaak 36 sterfgevalle/dag

-    Rookverwante siektes veroorsaak 55 sterfgevalle/dag

SMOKING IS AN ADDICTION

Smoking is more than a habit. It's an addiction to nicotine. That's why you may feel irritable or anxious when you don't have a cigarette, and why it is so difficult to stop. When you smoke, nicotine reaches the brain in 10-16 seconds and releases chemicals which make you feel good. The problem is, your body doesn't want that feeling to stop and craves more nicotine, so you keep smoking.

 

Due to this addiction, you may experience the following withdrawal symptoms after your last cigarette:

*    Depression

*    Lightheadedness

*    Sleep disturbance

*    Irritability or aggression

*    Restlessness

*    Impaired concentration

*    Increased appetite. Cravings are sometimes intense and may also persist for many months, especially if triggered by situational cues. 

THE BENEFITS OF STOPPING SMOKING ARE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-LASTING

Within 8 hours:Nicotine and monoxide levels in blood reduce by half, oxygen levels return to normal. Circulation improves.

Within 24 hours:Carbon monoxide and nicotine eliminated from the body.

Within 48 hours:The ability to taste and smell improves.

Within 1 month:Appearance improves - skin loses its grayish pallor and becomes less wrinkled.

Within 3-9 months:Coughing and wheezing declines.

Within 1 year:Risk of a heart attack reduces by half compared to that of a smoker.

Within 10 years:Risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker.

Within 15 years:Risk of heart attack falls to the same as someone who has never smoked.

ADDISIONELE VOORDELE: 

*    Dit verminder gesinslede se risiko vir hartsiekte en longkanker as gevolg van tweedehandse rook.

*    Dit is een van die bekostigbaarste gesondheidsorg ingrypings. 

PRAAT VANDAG NOG MET JOU APTEKER/DOKTER!

*    Jou aptekers/dokter is die aangewese persoon om jou te help om jou nuwe lewe te begin.

*    Medisyne is ontwikkel wat dit makliker maak om op te hou en jou 'n beter kans op sukses te bied.

*    Wanneer jy behandeling met 'n ondersteuningsprogram kombineer, verbeter jy jou kanse om      suksesvol te wees.

*    As jy gereed is om op te hou, vra jou apteker/dokter omtrent die "mytimetostart"-program en Pfizer se  nuwe produk, of besoek gerus www.mytimetostart.co.za.      


Comments(1)

Most of us who have children know that chest infections occur rather regularly and are often accompanied by throat and ear infections. Doctors are often asked what causes these infections and also why children keep getting chest infections. Today we would like to share some interesting facts regarding this condition. 

WHAT CAUSES REPEATED CHEST INFECTIONS?

The majority are caused by viruses which are not treatable, but occasionally bacteria may follow the viruses into the chest (called secondary infection) and can be treated by antibiotics. Most South African mothers work outside the home and children go to day mothers and nursery schools. Viral diseases spread easily when children are together in groups and there is no way of preventing this.  All children must naturally go through a series of colds and infections and thereby build up immunity. Unfortunately, what often happens is that young children no sooner recover from one infection that weakens their resistance, than they catch another. The repeated infections may also be caused by chronic infection that settles in the sinuses, adenoids or nose.  

IS MY KIND ALLERGIES?

Dikwels is  dit baie moeilik om vas te stel of u kind se simptome te wyte is aan allergieë of infeksies - veral as die kind onder drie jaar oud is. Die simptome is dikwels dieselfde. Die kind kan 'n reaksie teen iets (stof, stuifmeel) hê en daarbenewens ook 'n infeksie opdoen. U geneesheer kan bloed- of veltoetse aanvra om te bepaal of u kind allergies is en waarvoor hy/sy allergies is. Dit sal aantoon wat vermy moet word. Indien u of u huweliksmaat aan allergieë ly, of familielede het wat aan hooikoors, asma, ekseem ens. ly, kan dit deur u kinders oorgeërf word. 

WAT U KAN DOEN OM VERDERE LUGWEGINFEKSIES TE VOORKOM

Een van die grootste frustrasies vir ouers sowel as geneeshere, is dat daar dikwels min is wat gedoen kan word, behalwe om maar deur te druk met die herhalende infeksies totdat die kind sy eie immuniteit ontwikkel het. Byt maar vas wanneer u deur'n tydperk gaan waarin u kind herhaalde kursusse antbiotika benodig. Hierdie antibiotika genees nie slegs die bakteriële infeksies nie, maar voorkom ook komplikasies. Daar bestaan 'n mite dat "te veel antibiotika skadelik is." Dit is nie waar nie. Moderne antibiotika is veilig en verloor nie effektiwiteit deur herhaalde gebruik nie. Hulle voordele weeg veel swaarder as die feit dat bepaalde organismes weerstandig teen hulle kan raak. Daar is bewyse dat bepaalde vitamiene (bv. vitamien C) meewerk om 'n mens teen infeksies te beskerm. Vitamiene kan egter nie 'n goed gebalanseerde dieet wat van die allergrootste belang vir groeiende kinders is, vervang nie. Griep-inspuitings word gewoonlik nie aangedui vir kinders onder die ouderdom van 6 maande nie. Dit mag help as u voorskoolse kind tydelik uit die speelgroep of kleuterskool gehaal word om hom/haar 'n blaaskansie weg van die virusbelaaide omgewing gee.  

TYPES OF CHEST INFECTIONS

There are several different types of infections which occur at different ages. 

Bronchitis is a viral or bacterial infection that occurs in the tiny tubes in a baby's chest most commonly between 2 and 11 months. The baby coughs, has a tight chest and noisy fast breathing. It lasts for between 5 and 14 days and can be a potentially dangerous condition. Consult your doctor.

Asthma, (which often runs in families) is a condition that some children have in response to an infection or stimulus if they are predisposed to the disease.  It causes a tight chest and wheezing, especially on expiration.

Croup means "to croak" and the child suddenly and often at night starts with a harsh, barking cough, croupy breathing and hoarseness. Steam is usually beneficial. DO NOT give over-the-counter remedies or use drying cough mixtures as it aggravates the croup.

Whooping cough (pertussis) may present in an altered form despite immunisation. It is sometimes called the 90-day cough. The child has paroxysms of coughing which end in vomiting or retching. This may go on for 3 to 4 months despite the fact that the actual infection is over.  

BEHANDELING/TREATMENT

Gee baie vloeistowwe tydens enige infeksie. Water, vrugtesappe, koeldranke, elektroliete ens. in klein hoeveelhede, maar gereeld.

Vermy sappe wat swaeldioksied of ander preserveermiddels bevat, want dit kan bronchospasma (spasma van die lugpype) veroorsaak.

Your doctor will prescribe an antibiotic if there is a secondary infection or to prevent complications.Cough mixtures may help suppress a dry painful cough,especially at night. Put a kettle or humidifier on in the bedroom or sit with your child in a steam-filled shower room or bathroom. Bronchiolitis on the other hand, occasionally becomes worse with steam, so ask your doctor about this.

Aërosolpompe, inhaleerders en verstuiwers kan voorgeskryf word. Die nuwe inhaleerders beskik oor meetapparate en maatkamers (aero-chambers) wat dit vir kleiner kinders moontlik maak om die medisyne in sproeivorm in te asem.

Fever is safely treated with paracetamol. Preferably, aspirin should not be used by young children. In rare cases, it may cause a serious adverse reaction.

Neusdruppels kan u kind help indien die neus toe is en voeding bemoeilik. Dit kan ook help om drukking in die ore te verlig.

Besoek of skakel weer u geneesheer indien u bekommerd is oor u kind. Indien die kind nie wil eet of drink nie of 'n aanhoudende hoë koors het, behoort u kind voor die einde van die dag deur 'n geneesheer ondersoek te word. In very rare instances your child may, within a few hours, become restless and drowsy, sit up with his/her mouth open, dribble and be unable to swallow. If this happens, it is a medical emergency called epiglotitis and you must then IMMEDIATELY take your child to a hospital emergency room.


Comments(0)
2013-07-21 12:00:00 AM
 

WAT IS AKNEE?

Aknee is 'n velaandoening gekenmerk deur vlekke, merke en puisies veral op die gesig, rug en bors. Dit is 'n baie algemene toestand en ongeveer 80 persent van alle mense kry dit die een of ander tyd. Dit is die felste tussen die ouderdomme van 16 tot 19 jaar. In die meeste gevalle is die probleem teen die middel-twintigerjare iets van die verlede, behalwe in sowat 5 persent van mense by wie dit tot die middeljare aanhou. Ander gevalle begin eers teen die middeljare.

 

WHAT CAUSES ACNE?

Acne is caused when the natural pores are blocked by secretions. The small skin glands that produce oil (sebum) produce excess oil and skin cells. These block the ducts causing blackheads. They may also become infected and cause pustules. Acne can be caused by steroids and drugs used to treat epilepsy and tuberculosis.Hormone treatment also sometimes causes acne. Acne may get worse just before menstruation or when the contraceptive pill is stopped because of hormonal factors. Although emotional factors can aggravate acne, they do not cause it. 

MITES AANGAANDE AKNEE

Daar is verskeie menings aangaande aknee wat met verloop van tyd as onjuis bewys is:

* Vroeër het die mening bestaan dat lekkergoed, sjokolade of vetterige kosse aknee veroorsaak. Hoewel dit nie waar is nie, is daar tog uitsonderings. Sommige mense is sensitief vir bepaalde kossoorte wat veltoestande kan vererger, maar dit verskil van persoon tot persoon.

* Dit is onwaar dat oormatige seksuele aktiwiteite of die onthouding aan seks, aknee kan veroorsaak.   Seks het niks met aknee te make nie.

* Die aantal kere wat u u gesig was of die soort seep wat gebruik word, het geen invloed op die toestand nie.

Weer eens is daar uitsonderings waar 'n bepaalde soort seep u veltipe beter  sal pas, maar oor die algemeen is gewone seep en water net so goed soos enigiets anders. 

THE TREATMENT OF ACNE

Here are some general instructions that are useful to follow:

* Avoid greasy cosmetics as these may block the pores. Instead, use lightweight non-greasy make-up to cover unsightly spots.

* However tempting, do not squeeze or pick spots. It spreads infection and increases scarring.

* Sunlight is beneficial for most acne cases, so enjoy the outdoors, but do not burn your skin.

The medical treament of acne starts with creams or topical preparations which work by unblocking the pores and reducing oiliness. You usually start by applying the preparation (i.e. benzoyl peroxide) once a day and then increasing it to twice a day. Avoid the eyes and mouth. Initially, you will get redness, drying, scaling and some soreness, but don't give up! Stop for a day or two and then restart with a smaller amount. It is important to perservere as your skin will only improve after several weeks of treatment. Your doctor may prescribe other applications such as vitamin A cream or antibiotic solutions to apply with special instructions.

Indien u nie op hierdie behandeling reageer nie, kan 'n antibiotiese tablet of kapsule deur u geneesheer voorgeskryf word. Hierdie behandeling word meestal vir maande of selfs langer voorgeskryf. U geneesheer sal die behandelingsprogram en gebruiksaanwysings met u bespreek. Vroue moet daarop let dat antibiotika die effektiwiteit van u voorbehoedpil kan beïnvloed. U geneesheer kan selfs 'n "aknee-vriendelike" voorbehoedpil voorskryf wat kan meehelp om u aknee te verminder.

 

Meer aggressiewe behandeling vir aknee is beskikbaar slegs op voorskrif van u geneesheer en word gereserveer vir erge aknee.                                                                                                 
Comments(0)
2013-07-20 12:00:00 AM

Numerous people(young and old) suffer from backache and today we'd like to share some more information on this condition.

 

Backache is one of the most common afflictions of mankind and is suffered by six out of ten South Africans at some time or another. The reason for this is that the spinal column has to support the weight of the upper half of the body and its movements. The spinal column is supported by the ligaments and muscles of the back and the muscles of the abdomen. If they are weak, then the back is likely to be strained or injured. Backache is mainly caused by strains or injuries to these back muscles and ligaments and also from injuries to the cushions or discs between the vertebrae. These cushions bulge out or even rupture, often causing sudden back pain when bending to do something trivial. A bulging disc can also press on the sciatic nerve and cause a throbbing pain down the leg.

 

BEHOORLIKEVOORSORG VOORKOM RUGBESERINGS

Die kern van die behandeling van rugypn is om onnodige rugbeserings te voorkom en deur u rug te versterk deur gereelde oefening. Swem, stap en strekoefening is almal goeie oefening. Onthou om geleidelik op te warm, genoeg tyd toe te laat, nie die program deur te jaag nie en ook nie onnodig oorreed te word om ongewone,veeleisende oefeninge te doen nie. Moenie hoëhak- of spykerskoene dra nie.Moderne hardloop-of drafskoene is gemaklik en voorkom skokke en trillings op die ruggraat.

 

VOORKOMENDEPROGRAM VIR RUGYPYN

 

Wanneer u slaap:

* Slaap op 'n ferm matras wat u ruggraat ondersteun. Plaas 'n stewige plank onder die    matras indien die matras te sag is.

* Die beste manier om te slaap is op u sy met u knieë opgetrek.

* Slaap slegs op een kussing.

Wanneer u sit:

* Kies 'n gemaklike, stewige stoel wat die rugholte ondersteun. 'n "Ortopediese stoel"      is soms nuttig, veral by die werk.

* Ondersteun uself met u elmboë by 'n lessenaar of tafel en poog altyd om u rug reguit    te hou.

* Wanneer u lees of televisie kyk, gebruik 'n stoel wat die rug, nek, arms en veral die      laer gedeelte van die rug ondersteun. Moet nooit op u maag lê en lees of televisie        kyk nie.

When standing:

* Keep your back straight. Get into the habit by clasping your hands behind your back.

* If you have to stand for long periods at work, shift your weight from one foot to the    other and put one foot up on a bar, foot rail or low stool. Face your work                  directly.When turning, turn with your whole body, don't twist around.

 

When bending:

* The key to success is to keep your back straight and to bend you knees.

* Never bend and turn at the same time.

When lifting or reaching:

* When lifting objects from the floor, keep your back straight. Bend at the hips and        knees,never from the waist. Hold heavy objects close to your body.
* Avoid long reaches. Use a chair. Keep your buttocks tucked in as you reach.

* When working with a tool such as a broom or rake, always hold it close to your            body.

 

 

RUGOEFENINGE

Die vernaamste behandeling vir u rug is om die ondersteunende spiere te versterk, bv. die rug-en buikspiere. Sodra u rugpyn verbeter, kan u geleidelik begin om rugoefeninge te doen en aan sport deel te neem OP AANBEVELING VAN U GENEESHEER.  Wees geduldig. Dit verg heelwat dissipline en deursettingsvermoë om gereeld te oefen. Oefeninge behoort minstens een keer per dag gedoen te word. Moenie die oefeninge oordoen nie,veral nie in die begin nie. Begin deur die bewegings stadig en versigtig te probeer. Moenie bekommerd wees indien die oefening matige ongemak, wat 'n paar minute duur, veroorsaak nie. Indien die pyn egter erger as matig is en langer as 15 tot 30 minute duur, hou op en moet geen verdere oefening doen voordat u nie u geneesheer geraadpleeg het nie.

 

Do the exercises on a hard surface covered with a thin mat or heavy blanket. Put a pillow under your neck if it makes you more comfortable. Always start your exercises slowly and in the order marked, to allow muscles to loosen up gradually. Heat treatments just before you start, can help relax tight muscles. Follow your doctor or physiotherapist's instructions carefully, it will be well worth the effort.

 

DRUGS FOR BACKACHE

Your doctor will often prescribe anti-inflammatory injections, pills or suppositories to relieve the pain and swelling. It is important that you take the medication after a meal as it can irritate the stomach, especially if taken with aspirin. If the medication causes indigestion or abdominal discomfort, report it to your doctor.  

 

 


Comments(5)
2013-07-19 12:00:00 AM

 

Ons kry baie navrae vanaf pasiënte wat aan migraine ly en deel graag vandag met u ‘n paar interessante feite rondom hierdie kwaal. We trust that those of you who suffer from this condition, will benefit from this information.

MIGRAINE

Migraine verskil van ander fel hoofpyne omdat dit dikwels gepaard gaan met naarheid of braking en ‘n versteuring van visie. Somtyds sien die pasiënt flitsende ligte of glinsterende sigsaglyne om ‘n area van verlore sig van een of albei oë. Prikkels in die hande mag ook ondervind word. Ander simptome wat mag voorkom sluit in ‘n gevoelloosheid van die gesig, arms of bene, prikkels oral in die liggaam en spraakbelemmering. 

Migraine kom voor in ongeveer 10 persent van die bevolking en is meer algemeen onder vroue as mans. Aanvalle begin in adolessensie of vroeë volwassenheid. 

What causes migraine?

Migraines often run in families, but as yet no single cause has been found. Certain factors can trigger attacks. These trigger factors include:

* Certain foods, especially coffee, chocolate, nuts, dairy products, red wine, fried foods, shellfish, citrus fruits, spicy foods, cured or processed meats, peanuts and yeast.        

*Emotional and physical stress. This includes anger, anxiety, depression and excitement.        

*Loud noises.        

*Bright or flashing lights.        

*Some hormone treatments, in particular, the contraceptive pill. 

Treatment

Your doctor will normally diagnose migraine from the history you give him, but will at the same time exclude any other possible causes of headaches. If you have been diagnosed as suffering from migraine, your doctor will most probably prescribe an acute attack-aborting medication. This may include something for the pain and something for the nausea. It is important to take the medication as soon as possible after an attack begins. If you suffer from two or more attacks per month, your doctors should prescribe a preventive medicine to be taken daily for a period of time. If the cause of your migraine is linked to the oral contraceptive pill, your doctor should advise an alternative method of birth control. 

Voorkomende stappe        

Probeer die faktore wat u migraine veroorsaak, vasstel, deur op te let na die voorafgaande oorsake voor ‘n aanval. Die hou van ‘n dagboek waarin u notas maak van emosionele stres, verandering  in roetine, voedsel en drank, ensovoorts, kan u help om die faktore of kombinasie  van faktore vas te stel wat tot ‘n migraine lei.Tensy u seker is dat hulle geen invloed het nie, is dit beter om sjokolade, suiwelprodukte, sitrusvrugte en rooiwyn te vermy. Probeer om gereelde maaltye te nuttig. Lae bloedsuiker, as gevolg van die oorslaan van maaltye, kan tot ‘n aanval lei.  Stres is dikwels ‘n faktor in migraine.  Leer hoe om te ontspan en voorkom of verminder sodoende aanvalle.  Probeer om stresfaktore tuis en by die werk te verminder. Laat onbelangrike dinge begaan. 

Gevolgtrekking

Migraine is nie gevaarlik nie, alhoewel die simptome baie onaangenaam is en verhoed dat u normaalweg kan funksioneer. As u bekommerd is oor die oorsaak van u migraine of die aantal aanvalle, bespreek dit met u geneesheer. Hy sal u die nodige raad en bystand gee. 


Comments(0)
2013-07-18 12:00:00 AM

 

 

GRIEP EN VERKOUE / COLDS AND FLU

  What is flu?

Flu, or influenza, is a contagious disease caused by the influenza virus. Each year 5% to 10% of adults and 20% to 30% of children catch flu. 

Is dit griep of ‘n gewone verkoue?

Griep en verkoue verskil van mekaar.  Die volgende simptome is gewoonlik ‘n aanduiding van griep – hoë koors (39-40oC), kopseer, erge hoes, erge moegheid , lyfseer en pyne .  Anders as ‘n gewone verkoue, kan griep ‘n persoon baie siek maak en selfs lewensgevaarlike komplikasies by baie persone hê. 

 Remember flu FACTS

Fever

Aches and pain

Cough

Tiredness

Sudden onset

 

Hoe word griep versprei?

Griep is baie aansteeklik. Dit word deur die lug versprei bv. wanneer iemand nies of hoes, deur nabye kontak met iemand wat griep het, of deur aan gekontamineerde voorwerpe te raak.  Kieme word na jou respiratoriese sisteem oorgedra waar dit vinnig vermeerder en vir die tipiese griepsimptome verantwoordelik is. 

 Who is at risk?

Anyone can catch flu. Being fit and healthy does not stop you from getting it.  You can also unknowingly infect others, as it takes 1-4 days for symptoms to appear. Some people are at increased risk of developing life-threatening complications if they contract flu, e.g. the elderly, young children, people suffering from diabetes, asthma, chronic heart, lung or kidney disease. 

 Wat is die komplikasies van griep?

Komplikasies van griep kan die volgende insluit – bakteriële longontsteking, oorinfeksie, sinus infeksie, dehidrasie en verergering van kroniese mediese kondisies soos bv. kongestiewe hartversaking, asma endiabetes.  Maagsimptome soos braking,diaree en naarheid kan ook voorkom maar is meer algemeen onder kinders. 

Can children be vaccinated against flu?

Yes.  The vaccine can be given to children as young as 6 months.

 Is die griepinspuiting veilig?

Ja.  Griepinspuitings het selde slegte reaksies tot gevolg.  Die mees algemene reaksie is effense gevoeligheid by die inspuitplek.  Die ongeaktiveerde griepinspuiting bevat nie-aansteeklike dooie virusse, wat slegs die liggaam attent maak op die bedreiging van die virus. Die inspuiting sal jou nie griep gee nie.

 Is it possible to prevent flu?

Yes, it is possible to prevent flu through vaccination.  The efficacy of flu vaccines has been clinically proven.  Many countries all over the world recommend flu vaccination during flu season. 

 Wanneer is die beste tyd om ‘n griepinspuiting te kry?

Omdat die griepseisoen verskil in lengte en intensiteit , is dit die beste om die griepinspuiting te kry sodra die inspuitings beskikbaar is.Dit kan ook gedurende die hele griepseisoen toegedien word.

 Why should I get a flu shot every year?

The flu viruses are constantly changing.  Generally, new influenza virus strains circulate every flu season.  Each year, before flu season, the most recent circulating viruses are identified by the World Health Organisation  (WHO) and are included in a new vaccine formula in order to offer the best protection. 

 

Wat gaan ‘n griepinspuiting vir my doen?

Potensieel lewensreddend vir hoë risiko persone.

Voorkom griep-geassosieerde siektes en hospitalisasie.

Voorkom griep-geassosieerde afwesigheid van skool en werk.

Verminder die risiko van oordrag van griep na familielede, vriende en mede-werkers.

 

Help antibiotika vir griep?

Antibiotika werk net vir bakteriële siekte toestande. Omdat griep en verkoue ‘n virale (deur ‘n virus veroorsaak) toestand is, sal dit ongelukkig nie help om antibiotika daarvoor te neem nie. Jy mors dus jou geld om vir ‘nantibiotika te vra as jy griep en verkoue het.

 

VACCINATION  IS YOUR BEST DEFENSE AGAINST FLU!!

NOW AVAILABLE AT R65.00 PER SHOT ATLIBRA PHARMACY

GROUPS OF 15 OR MORE R60.00 PER SHOT

 


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2013-07-16 12:00:00 AM
Talle mense kla dat hulle nou vreeslik met hooikoors sukkel en daarom deel ons graag vandag 'n paar interessante feite rondom hierdie toestand met u.
 
Wat is hooikoors?
Hooikoors is 'n seisoenale allergie vir stuifmeel. Dit veroorsaak 'n genies, jeukerige- en tranende oë, 'n loopneus en 'n jeukerige verhemelte. Dit kan soos 'n langdurige verkoue voel. Hooikoors kan ook hoofpyne en prikkelbaarheid tot gevolg hê. Klassieke hooikoors is gewoonlik te wyte aan die stuifmeel van grasse en bome (veral plantaan, eike en populier), onkruid en bepaalde soorte skimmel. Gewoonlik begin hooikoors met die aanvang van lente wanneer die stuifmeel toeneem en duur voort deur die grasseisoen, wat in Suid-Afrika nege maande van die jaar kan wees.
 
'n Soortgelyke toestand (voortdurende allergiese rinitis) met soortgelyke simptome kan as gevolg van 'n allergie vir huisstof, huisstofmiet, katte, ens. ontstaan en enige tyd van die jaar voorkom.
 
What happens in hayfever?
Hayfever can be an inherited or acquired allergy. When pollen comes in contact with the lining of the nose or eyes, it causes a reaction which leads to the release of substances, such as histamine which cause the nose, throat and eyes to water and itch. After a while it needs only small amounts of the pollen to cause these reactions and the nose also becomes sensitive to other common irritants (smoke, fumes, dust, etc.).
 
Skin and blood tests can be done to try and identify your allergy. The skin tests are done by pricking the skin with a variety of allergens. The blood tests can show if you are an allergic person and may also help to identify other allergens, such as food. Food is rarely a cause of hayfever, but cow's milk can be an offender.
 
How can I prevent or reduce symptoms?
Hayfever sufferers often find that symptoms are less severe when they are indoors, away from the pollen in the garden or country. It is almost impossible to avoid the pollen in the air, but the count may be reduced by removing specific shrubs or trees from your garden, closing the bedroom windows at night and the car windows when driving. Pollen counts are particularly high in dry and windy areas.
 
Perennial allergic rhinitis, which occurs throughout the year, may be reduced by damp-dusting and keeping dogs and cats outdoors. Smoking is a nasal irritant and sufferers and their immediate families should NOT smoke.
 
Behandeling
Antihistamiene is die bekendste medisyne vir die behandeling vir die simptome van hooikoors. Dit voorkom die vrystelling van histamien wat die simptome veroorsaak. Sommige anithistamiene kan lomerigheid veroorsaak en behoort nie saam met alkohol ingeneem te word, wanneer u motor bestuur of met masjinerie werk nie.
 
Neusdruppels- en sproeie kan 'n loopneus en nasale kongestie verlig. U geneesheer sal u kan adviseer. Voorkomende behandeling is ook beskikbaar. Hierdie vorm van behandeling het geen newe-effekte nie, maar gee nie onmiddellik verligting nie. Dit neem tot twee weke en selfs tot twee maande voordat die volle effek verkry word. Wees geduldig en gebruik dit gereeld soos voorgeskryf.
 
 

 


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2013-07-15 12:00:00 AM

Today we would like to share some information on peptic ulcers.

 
Peptic ulcers occur in the stomach and the duodenum into which the digested food passes. They cause indigestion or "dyspepsia" which is a general term used to describe discomfort or pain of the stomach, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting and bloating. The pain may occur after eating, when your stomach is empty, or may wake you at night.
 
Peptic ulcers may be caused by the stomach producing excess acid or the lining of the stomach being "burnt" by the acid, because it is vulnerable. Emotional stress may aggravate ulcers and some families have a history of stomach ulcers. These symptoms are not specific to stomach  ulcers and can be caused by other conditions, such as gall bladder disease, hiatus hernia, gastritis and spastic colon.
 
Ondersoeke:
Indien u aan slegte spysvertering, dispepsie of ongemak van die maag ly, kan u geneesheer bepaalde ondersoeke reël indien u simptome voortduur. 'n Bariummaal is 'n X-straal ondersoek wat gedoen word, terwyl u 'n wit mengsel sluk wat u maag belyn. Die algemeenste prosedure wat tans gebruik word, heet endoskopie (gastroskopie) en word na verwys as die "sluk van die kamera". Dit behels die sluk van 'n dun buis waardeur die geneesheer in u maag kan kyk en presies vasstel waar die probleem geleë is. Terselfdertyd kan die geneesheer 'n monster van die maagwand neem (biopsie). U sal geen pyn ervaar nie, maar die prosedure kan soms ongemak veroorsaak.
 
Die behandeling van peptiese ulkus:
U geneesheer sal tablette en vloeistof voorskryf wat die suurafskeiding sal neutraliseer of verminder en sodoende die maagwand beskerm. 'n Streng sagte dieet is nie nodig nie, maar kossoorte wat die simptome vererger moet vermy word. Dit sluit in kosse met baie kruie en speserye, kerrie, boontjies, vrugtesappe, gebakte kosse en vars brood. Ten spyte van die feit dat melk as neutraal en strelend beskou wrod, moet dit vermy word aangesien dit suurafskeiding bevorder. Dit is belangrik om gereeld te eet en nie maaltye oor te slaan nie.
 
Alcohol and smoking:
It is important to reduce your alcohol consumption, especially beer and wine. Drink in moderation (two drinks a day) or not at all and avoid drinking on an empty stomach. You should not smoke as smoking increases acid secretion and delays ulcer healing.
 
Relaxation:
As anxiety, stress and emotional upsets may make your ulcer worse, it is important to review your lifestyle. Obsession with work and having too few holidays and hobbies can bring on ulcers. Exercise is relaxing and good for you.  
 
Beware of tablets
Do not take painkillers that contain aspirin (read the label on the bottle). If you are suffering from a peptic ulcer, the best painkiller to take is paracetamol, which is available in several brands. Tablets for joint pains, arthritis and sport injuries (called anti-inflammatories) can also irritate your stomach. Cortisone (steroids) can also weaken the stomach. Take all tablets with or after food, unless instructed otherwise. If you experience a stomach ache or any discomfort, discontinue the tablets and consult your doctor.
 
Raadpleeg u geneesheer indien:
* u herhalende pyn op die maag of slegte spysvertering het
* u stoelgang donker of swart is
* die pyn vererger en nie deur 'n antisuurmiddel verlig word nie
* u bloed of bruin koffiekleuringe maaginhoud braak
 
Chirurgiese behandeling:
As verandering in u lewenstyl en medikasie nie langtermyn verligting bring nie, kan u aangeraai word om 'n operasie te ondergaan. Dit behels gewoonlik die afsny van die senuwees wat na u maag lei (vagotomie) en sodoende word die suurafskeiding van die maag verminder. Verbeterde diagnostiese prosedures en medikasie het die vooruitsigte vir peptiese ulkuslyers, drasties verbeter. Deesdae is chirurgie selde nodig.
 

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